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10个失败的计划,将彻底改变美国

很奇怪认为美国是高于全国,它是今天的任何其他。 But throughout its relatively short history, it’s seen numerous plans that, had they succeeded, would have changed the landscape of the country in some pretty bizarre ways.


10在无知者党

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美国有它的起源是一个陌生双面意见。 While it proudly proclaims itself to be a diverse melting pot of different cultures, it also can be extremely suspicious of outsiders.

这种偏见的一个产品是反移民的无知者党,所谓的,因为成员,当被问及其暗箱操作,会说他们什么都不知道。 It wasn’t just a small, upstart political party that died out quickly, either; the Know-Nothing party had主要立足点北方州政府像美国特拉华州和马萨诸塞州,计数市长,省长,和它的行列其他城市的官员。 In 1856,前总统米勒德·菲尔莫尔还送另一个运行在白宫对无知者提出的候选人名单。

讽刺的是,当他们试图其范围扩展到奴隶主南党的倒台来了。 The Know-Nothings might have wanted to purify America and eliminate immigrants, but they were also anti-slavery. After finding out about these irreconcilable differences, the party dissolved; many members joined another political party—共和党

9罗斯福提出的第二权利法案


1944年,富兰克林·德拉诺·罗斯福认为美国政府是需要有点检修的。 He knew few who served alongside him would support his new vision for the country, so he pitched his idea for a second bill of rights to the American public during his 1944 State of the Union address.

不同于人权法案,其通过限制政府采取行动确保公民的自由,罗斯福的权利第二项法案要求更大的政府行为社会和经济的稳定。 He called for a formalized right to education, freedom from economic ruin, access to health care, a decent home, and the right to a living wage. For business owners, he called for a guarantee that all businesses could operate without infringement from monopolies and that farmers would receive a government-backed price for crops and livestock.

罗斯福说生活的平均标准没有关系。 If any part of the population, no matter how small, was hungry, uneducated, and suffering, then the government had failed. “贫困的人不是自由的人。 People who are hungry and out of a job are the stuff of which dictatorships are made.”


8第一暗杀企图在林肯

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亚伯拉罕·林肯的1860年11月大选后,并不是每个人都乐意与国家的新总统。 Death threats started pouring in almost immediately, and though Lincoln brushed them off, they presented major problems for his small staff.

就在他就职之前,有传闻称,林肯的反对者计划在他去华盛顿的路上杀了他。 Railroad magnate Samuel Morse Felton got wind of these rumors and contacted Allan Pinkerton, Chicago’s first private detective. Pinkerton knew the plot’s keystone had to be Baltimore, as it was one of few cities through which Lincoln absolutely had to pass.

平克顿把自己伪装成一个股票经纪人,租来的一些办事处,并开始制造通过挥发性巴尔的摩商业世界的回合。 Pinkerton and his handful of associates soon ran into Italian immigrant Cypriano Ferrandini, who supported his own country’s rebellions and wanted Lincoln dead before Inauguration Day. A $25 donation to the cause got Pinkerton, in his stockbroker guise, a meeting with the would-be assassin.

意识到威胁是非常真实的,侦探进一步推,直到最后被启动到地下运动。 Ballots were drawn, and eight of the rebels were tasked with killing Lincoln. Pinkerton retreated from Baltimore, armed with the news and an insistence that Lincoln’s itinerary through Baltimore be changed.

当选总统暗中推进他的时间表。 Hidden from view, attention drawn from him by distractions, and at one point traveling as a female detective’s “invalid brother,” Lincoln arrived in Baltimore earlier than expected. By the time the plotters realized that Lincoln had slipped through their net, Pinkerton and his associates had already gotten the man who would be one of the country’s greatest presidents safely to Washington for his inauguration.

7在反共济会党

04
许多政治家和企业主,美国的呼风唤雨,是共济会,但如果这19世纪20年代的政治运动得手,动态将是非常不同的。

1826年,该威廉·摩根失踪引发反共济会情绪的长篇大论。 Morgan had threatened to expose the Masons’ secrets after being rejected for membership, and since his disappearance was never solved, many assume the Masons killed him and covered it up. The public also began believing it was dangerous for so many men in positions of power to belong to a secret society.

在反共济会党开始了作为一个宗教运动,废除共济。 It quickly expanded into a political platform that claimed that Masons used political power for personal gains against national interests.有些泥瓦匠甚至倒戈; the Anti-Masons’ nominee for the 1832 presidential race was former Mason William Wirt.

党不只是风行一时,无论是。 The Anti-Masonic party did some serious damage to the organization, and the aftereffects still echo today. The number of Freemasons in the country dropped by 60 percent, and almost 400 lodges closed in New York State alone.

反共济运动后,泥瓦匠经常被挤到具有相同类型的耻辱随后其他团体如工会。 Had the movement succeeded fully, our list of presidents might have looked rather different and not included names like哈里·s·杜鲁门、西奥多·罗斯福、威廉·麦金利和罗斯福


6共和国卡斯卡迪亚

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照片来源: 词汇/维基

当托马斯·杰斐逊派著名的探险家刘易斯和克拉克以图表美国,他可能不会一直在寻求新的土地,以附件进入该国。 Instead, Jefferson envisioned a completely独立,毗邻国家被称为共和国卡斯卡迪亚的,统治本身,而是在视图中,政治和贸易仍沿着美国。亚博电子游艺app客户端

“Cascasdia”这个名字所引用的美丽,山野菜和他们的瀑布。 In fact, one of the driving forces behind the idea was the natural barrier formed by the Rocky Mountains. Mother Nature appeared to have already created a border, and we needed to recognize and respect it.

即使在完全脱离后尝试失败,20世纪40点年代的运动试图巩固某种来自政府的独立性。 None saw enough success to fulfill Jefferson’s dream.

5占领恶魔

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照片来源: Tewy /维基

在20世纪50年代,艾森豪威尔总统签署法案,把政府控制下的美国原住民保留备份,无数人从土地,他们会长时间打电话回家取代。 In retaliation, several groups tried to occupy the unused island of Alcatraz.

第一个职业,在1964年,只持续了四个小时但是定下了基调和要求的清单。 Occupiers wanted Alcatraz returned to the Sioux, under the rules of an 1868 treaty that said unused federal land defaults back to Indian control.

第二职业并没有持续更长的时间之前,海岸警卫队把它破坏了,但第三从1969年11月20日,一直持续到联邦执法官结束了它在6月10日,1971年运动开始作为一个象征性的要求由少数人作出; it was extremely well organized, and they were prepared for a long occupation. A functioning community formed on the island while the occupiers demanded that the island be converted into a university and museum dedicated to Sioux heritage.

联邦政府下令占领结束,但随后同意谈判。 Real negotiations never happened, though; negotiators simply rejected every demand. The government then stopped trying to shut down the occupation and just barricaded the island so the colony would self-destruct. The meltdown started largely due to the hippie drug culture of nearby San Francisco leaking in, turning the occupation from a cause to a free-for-all.

最终,联邦执法官做风暴岛上,强制删除抗议者仍是少数。 Though the occupation raised some awareness, it failed to accomplish anything else.


4耶利米埃瓦茨对战的印第安人迁移法案

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照片来源: 佐治亚大学校长

安德鲁·杰克逊在1830年(即使他他的军事生涯中或许有切诺基盟友感谢签署了印第安人迁移法案成为法律挽救他的生命)。传教士耶利米·埃弗茨(Jeremiah Evarts)是对该计划最直言不讳的批评者之一。

Evarts与董事会的大部分工作都是在印度旅行,他的结论是他们作为公民的价值与当时政府的想法不一致。Evarts写了部落的能力相符当有机会获得学校、农田和工具时,就能达到欧洲的生活标准。他还提到了这个国家对所有人的道德责任,不管是本地人还是欧洲人。他说,那些在欧洲定居者之前就已经在这块土地上的人应该能够留在那里。不管人们认为他们有多文明或多不文明,他们都应该享有与其他人同样的权利。

政府的许多行动都是基于这样一种理念,即他们是在与不同的群体签订条约,但埃弗茨指出,宪法只赋予他们与其他国家签订条约的权利,所以他们的行动是这样的绝对违宪

3.反妇女参政运动的妇女

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第一次世界大战后,美国妇女开始要求投票权,这远非一场老生常谈的辩论。我们都听说过支持投票权的女性的故事,但鲜为人知的是失败一方的观点。那些反对赋予妇女投票权的人是反妇女参政论者,其中大多数是妇女。

到1911年,在全国各地兴起的零星的反妇女参政运动结合起来形成了全国反对妇女选举权协会(NAOWS),所有人都在一位名叫约瑟芬·道奇(Josephine Dodge)的女性领导下。作为纽约市一个引领潮流的家庭的一员,道奇最初因建立负责照顾移民子女的日托所而闻名。

早在NAOWS成立的20年前,道奇就已经在她所能找到的几乎所有渠道表达了她对妇女选举权的看法。她说,妇女被允许投票是完全没有必要的;不仅如此,它还会危害社会工作女性在其中起着重要的作用。她还说,对妇女来说重要的事业,如童工法和妇女工资,在没有妇女本身帮助的情况下已经得到了公平的确立。

根据NAOWS和它所催生的以州为基础的组织的说法,投票会严重而消极地影响女性真正的顺从和家庭状态。这些组织受到自认为是真正女性典范的女性的拥护——安静、端庄、高贵。她们轻蔑地看着妇女参政权论者的表面抗议。但最终,安静和威严并没有帮助他们的事业。

2普雷斯科特·布什参与纳粹

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普雷斯科特•布什(Prescott Bush)是美国政治强国之一的家长。在第一次世界大战中服役后,他利用家族的金融关系,进入了一家名为联合银行公司(Union Banking Corporation)的底层工作。第二次世界大战期间,身为公司董事的布什领导的公司最终因《与敌国贸易法》(Trading with the Enemy Act)而失去了资产。

最近解密的文件显示,布什为纳粹在美国的利益提供了一个安全的地方,并为纳粹向全球转移资金提供了掩护。布什的公司是美国资金的避风港,这些资金是由希特勒的主要金融家之一、实业家弗里茨·蒂森(Fritz Thyssen)流入美国的。

当时的报纸报道推测布什保住了纳粹的储备金如果有东西从被窥视的手中滑落。它确实南下了,但是蒂森的钱在1942年被美国政府没收了,当时它还没有重新回到纳粹德国。前途无量的布什家族仍然相当强大,而且普雷斯科特·布什的纳粹空壳公司的发现也没有带来任何后果。

尚不清楚银行丑闻是否只是商业行为,还是因为布什以任何方式支持纳粹理想。但在1944年,罗斯福发布了一项行政命令,要求政府必须采取行动拯救欧洲犹太人。这一命令失败了,两名大屠杀幸存者在诉讼中指责布什家族的阻挠。普雷斯科特·布什曾被认为是一位有希望的总统候选人,他的当选可能会极大地改变美国的政治格局。亚博电子游艺app客户端

1《外国人与煽动叛乱法》

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《外国人与煽动叛乱法案》由约翰·亚当斯总统签署成为法律,如果这些法案在他的任期之后还继续存在,它们将会对美国产生相当大的影响。

《外国人法》规定,如果美国处于战争状态,政府可以逮捕、监禁或驱逐任何非公民并没收他们所有的财产。它阻止了移民成为美国公民,而不是在申请前在美国呆上5年,他们突然需要14年。这项法律的目的不仅是要将美国最新的敌人——法国人——排除在外,还包括其他任何团体,如爱尔兰到这个国家来制造麻烦。

根据煽动叛乱法,任何人被发现组织反对政府的运动,密谋反对政府,甚至表达对政府的不满可能会被罚款和逮捕。那些胆敢在政府上写或说任何谎言或任何恶意的话的人也可能被罚款和监禁两年。

报社编辑被判入狱当报纸上的文章批评政府的行为时;令人意外的是,这些行动几乎没有为那些制定法律的人赢得政治支持。幸运的是,这些法律并不受欢迎。詹姆斯·麦迪逊称这些法律是一种耻辱允许法案终止

黛布拉凯利

从女油漆工到掘墓人,黛布拉做过很多零工,她喜欢写那些历史课上不会教的东西。她大部分时间都被她的两只牧牛狗分散了注意力。

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