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10 .熟知事物的错误起源

世界上有许多起源我们不知道的东西。我们通常把一个特定物体的创造归于与之最相关的国家或文化,但这并不总是正确的。很明显,当谈论真正古老的发明时,真正的答案很难被发现,但是很可能下面的条目都没有你所期望的起源。


10哈吉斯

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毫无疑问,苏格兰人喜欢吃羊杂碎(一种把羊的各个部位塞进羊肚子里的布丁)。大多数人把这种爱归功于苏格兰的民族诗人罗伯特·彭斯(Robert Burns)。如今,这种热情已经把肉馅羊杂碎变成了一道国菜,成了传统彭斯晚餐的主菜。然而,所有这些并没有改变哈吉斯的事实在苏格兰并没有发明.

可以理解为什么大多数人会认为肉馅羊杂碎是一种苏格兰菜,但是支持这种说法的历史证据并不存在。彭斯的标志性诗歌发表于1787年。在此之前,苏格兰肉馅羊杂碎最早出现在1747年。然而,在1615年之前,至少有一本英语烹饪书提到过羊杂碎。我们可以更进一步,一直到1430年,有一本英文诗歌烹饪书叫做莱博治疗Cocorum.它有一种叫做“哈格斯”(hagese)的烹饪方法,将羊的心脏和肾脏煮熟并切碎,然后将它们与香料和其他配料混合。

9阿基米德螺旋

不用猜是谁获得了这项发明的荣誉。这位古希腊科学家和发明家的名字赢得了许多赞誉。有些人也会包括阿基米德螺旋,也被称为螺旋泵,一种利用两台简单的机器(气缸和斜面)来输送液体的装置。在古代,人们常常用它来灌溉田地或把玉米从一个地方运到另一个地方。这是一个基本的设计,但它的简单和效率保证了即使是现代版本也不会与原始版本有太大的区别。

然而,尽管希腊人在希腊化时期取得了许多技术突破,但螺旋泵可能并不是其中之一。有强有力的证据表明类似的设备,基于同样的原则,是由早在350年前的亚述人创造的。古代亚述王西拿基立曾描述过这样一种灌溉花园的装置。

事实上,有些人认为这些花园和著名的空中花园是一样的,而空中花园从未被确定是在巴比伦。如果这是真的,它肯定会让人相信螺旋泵不是希腊起源的理论。古代历史学家斯特拉博也把空中花园描述成由螺丝浇灌的。这使得阿基米德很可能并没有发明螺丝钉,而是采用了这种设计并加以改进。


8英格兰银行

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同样,这个名字很容易让人联想到是哪个国家负责这个特别的机构,但实际上,设计英格兰银行计划的人是苏格兰人。17世纪末对英国来说是一段艰难的时期。法国已经确立了对水资源的统治地位,尽管英国在威廉三世(William III)继位后政治稳定,但英国的公共财政依然稳定被严重削弱.为了加强新政府的财政实力,急需建立一个新的信用体系。

人们设计了好几个方案,但最后被采纳的那个方案是属于美国海军上将威廉·帕特森的苏格兰银行和贸易商。他提议向政府银行筹集120万英镑的贷款,届时认购人将被任命为“英格兰银行行长和公司”。

该计划是一个危险的一个,因为该银行将基本上可借其所有的钱到一个单一的实体(英国政府)。 Nonetheless, it only took a few weeks in order to gather the capital. On July 27, 1694, the Royal Charter was sealed and the Bank of England began its life as the government’s debt manager—a role which it今天仍然发挥着作为世界上第二古老的央行。

7保龄球

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保龄球是一项流行的运动在世界各地,但其中一个英文通常邀功。 It might be true that bowling has been played there for centuries and that they are responsible for the version which is most similar to the modern game—but the origins of the sport go back much further than that. In fact, the earliest version of bowling could date as far back as 3200 B.C. The grave of an Ancient Egyptian child who lived during that period was found to contain what appears to be原油保龄球设备.

有证据显示,罗马人也有原始版本保龄球。 This involved throwing stone objects as close as possible to other stone objects. This version of the game grew in popularity and inspired the outdoor bowling game known as bocce, which is still played today.


6金字塔

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我们都认为我们有一个什么样的金字塔看起来像一个不错的主意,尽管大多数这些图像将是错误的。 This is mostly due to the Egyptian pyramids hogging all the fame, even though plenty of其他例子金字塔可以在美洲,中国,印度尼西亚,甚至欧洲被发现。 Furthermore, the Great Pyramid of Giza often is claimed as the largest pyramid in the world, even though the honor actually goes to the Mayan Pyramid of Cholula (Giza is the tallest, though). And last, but not least, it is becoming more and more doubtful that the Egyptian pyramids were actually the first ones of their kind.

它是可能的,像许多其他的东西,金字塔首次在美索不达米亚。 After all, it’s not called the cradle of civilization for nothing. These constructions were called通灵塔并且,虽然我们说他们看起来完全不同,从架构的角度来看,他们是金字塔。 The problem is that they didn’t survive as well as the pyramids, so we have no examples that definitively prove they were built earlier. However, we do have engravings of ziggurats on cylinder seals that can be dated as far back as the Early Dynastic period (around 3000 B.C.) and circumstantial evidence suggests their construction originated even farther back, during the Uruk period, long before the first Egyptian pyramids.

皮纳塔

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敬爱的皮纳塔是在几乎任何类型的庆祝墨西哥的主食,并与强烈关联的国家,但是,这不是在那里它的起源。 Actually, there is still ongoing debate regarding the exact birthplace of the party favor but, whatever the truth might be, the piñata is definitely不墨西哥.最起码,皮纳塔被西班牙从欧洲带过来的。 At this point, the activity was not necessarily a game, but more of a religious tradition. The piñata was supposed to represent the devil: It was made pretty to symbolize temptation, and the participants were blindfolded as a way of symbolizing their faith.

但是,事实证明,西班牙人并不是皮纳塔的发明者无论是。 In fact, they, like most of Europe, got the idea from the Italians—who supposedly got it from the Chinese. It would now appear that the piñata actually起源于中国和欧洲的旅行者把它带回了家。 Among those who discovered the piñata in China and took it back to Italy was one of the most famous explorers of all time: Marco Polo.


4飞碟

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我们大多数人都倾向于认为,报告飞碟的趋势是相对较新的和在美国大多集中。 It is true that this is where the term “flying saucer” was first used. The first story about aliens to attract widespread media coverage was that of pilot肯尼思·阿诺德,谁报告说,看到形如飞碟或饼板多个不明飞行物。 Despite Arnold never actually using the words “flying saucer,” that is the term the media latched onto when describing his story. Despite the sensation Arnold caused back then, nowadays he is mostly forgotten, his sighting quickly overshadowed by the Roswell incident.

不过,虽然术语可能是新的,这种现象实际上是约1000岁。 That’s when the first mention of a similar mysterious flying machine occurs in a Japanese folktale called竹取物语.它讲述了一个美丽的女人谁来自月球的故事,虽然目前尚不清楚,这是没有考虑过任何超过一个故事。 However, there are实际帐户的人声称看到飞碟所有整个中世纪,他们是在中世纪的艺术品偶尔描述。

3人力车

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人力车已运输的一种常见形式在许多亚洲城市超过两个世纪。 However, despite this fact, their origin is still up in the air. The most commonly accepted explanation is that it was invented by三家日本男人,谁申请,并于1870年接收。然而许可政府制造和销售人力车,有几个人谁拥有合法自称是发明家。 Like many other entries on this list, it is impossible to know with certainty when the rickshaw was invented, but it is possible that the rickshaw was not invented by the Japanese, but rather by an American (sadly, his name wasn’t Rick Shaw).

根据这一理论,人力车在日本的确创造,而是由一个叫乔纳森·戈布尔(或可能乔纳森·斯科比)美国传教士,谁是记录已请求日本当局对车辆税的份额。 Scobie gained considerable support from Tokyo’s European community for his claim to have invented the rickshaw, possibly for his invalid wife or at the request of a Japanese official. Moreover, the Burlington County Historical Society in New Jersey has in its collection a rickshaw which is supposedly an 1867 invention of马车制造商詹姆斯·伯奇,因此早于日语版本。

即便如此,还有另外一个要求是更老的,是马萨诸塞州的铁匠阿尔伯特托尔曼,谁建什么被形容为“的男子拉货车”传教士前往南美。 If he did actually invent the rickshaw, he would have done it in 1846.

2断头台

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约瑟夫 - 伊尼亚斯·吉约丹获取信贷对于本发明,即使著名的设计实际上是由安托万·路易斯博士创建,由德国古钢琴制造商托比亚斯·施密特建造。 However, there were several other decapitation machines before the guillotine, which actually served as the basis for it—and they weren’t French.

其中一个刀片可以解除,暂停,以杀头的人发布的一个框架的想法是整个历史发展好几次。 The earliest source we have is木刻刊登在1577年的一本书没有为没有上下文它,所有我们知道的是,它描绘了1307执行一个爱尔兰人的使用非常类似断头台的设备称为Murcod Ballagh。

在此之后,我们有哈利法克斯绞刑架.绞刑架是几乎相同的断头台,只是它没有使用倾斜的刀片,这意味着斩首是没有那么快或无痛。 Although formal records of people being executed using this method started in 1541, it is likely that the device was used long before that, perhaps as early as 1280. The Halifax Gibbet served as direct inspiration for the guillotine, but also for another decapitation device called the Scottish Maiden. It was first1564年使用与主要区别在于少女使用的更大,更重刀片。

1风笛

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如果你要想象的定型苏格兰人,你可能会想象有人穿着短裙和演奏风笛。 This musical instrument is firmly associated with Scotland and there is good reason for that. The Scottish version of the instrument, known as the Great Highland bagpipe, is the most common one in the world. However, this doesn’t mean that the bagpipes were invented in Scotland—because they weren’t.

著名的高地风笛的某个时候出现在15世纪左右。 It is thought that it might actually have been developed earlier than this, but there is no hard evidence to support the idea. However, all that is needed in order to determine that the bagpipes are older than that is to visit a few historical sites. Statues of people playing the bagpipes are quite common throughout Europe. For example, there is在桑特哈维的西多会修道院的历史可以追溯到12世纪。

有证据,虽然,风笛比大很多,要全部可以追溯到罗马时代的方式。 The Emperor Nero is described by Suetonius as风笛球员.另一种文字描述一位不愿透露姓名的皇帝(也可能尼禄)谁发挥“管道,都是由他的嘴唇并借助每天进食皮肤他的腋窝下“。

拉杜是一位自由作家谁花他的时间写怪异,神秘或只是简单的古怪的一切。 Contact him at[电子邮件保护]或者打个招呼在Twitter上.