今天，我们不能在电视上没有看到某种破案剧转动。 These days we’re well aware of the use of forensics and we’re pretty well versed on criminal psychology. That wasn’t always the case, though, and there was a time when criminology was a brand new science. They were still learning about the criminal mind and criminal actions and, sometimes, the resulting theories were just plain weird.
切萨雷龙勃罗梭是意大利医生和犯罪学家早谁住在19世纪。 He was a huge supporter of the idea that people were just born to be criminals, and those people had certain physical and emotional traits that made them very clearly predetermined to be on the wrong side of the law. According to Lombroso, the criminal man could be identified by some specific traits that he determined by studying both living criminals and the bodies of those who had been executed. He said that the criminal man was something of an evolutionary throwback and would resemble a Neanderthal more than he would look like a normal, upstanding citizen.
他还表示，谁注定要成为罪犯，男人是天生就具有暴力及纵欲不健康的食欲，往往有这样的发现最原始的性状（更多的在一分钟内）纹身。 The criminal man (and woman) was said to be identified by extra fingers and toes, protruding lips, bad teeth, abnormalities in the ears and nose, and甚至多余乳头。 Lombroso also had an explanation for previously law-abiding citizens who suddenly did something terrible: He said that everyone was at risk of reverting back to their primal, ancestral mindset, and those criminals that do so should be punished more severely than lifelong criminals. After all, lifelong criminals couldn’t help the way they were, but punishment would bring others back to法律的右侧。
龙勃罗梭也在了解刑事女人有一展身手。 He said that while men were more likely to commit violent crimes, women were more likely to commit crimes of a sexual nature. The most common female criminal was the prostitute, he said, and women (who were already lower on the evolutionary ladder than men) who became criminals could often be identified by their narrow foreheads, receding hairlines, obesity, and small heads. He also cited左撇子作为女性犯罪倾向，与抓握脚趾沿的蛛丝马迹之一。
他们的性格是从一个女人负责完全不同的为好。 While most good, decent women were preoccupied with being mothers, caring for their families, and not instigating sex whatsoever, the criminal woman packed her time with性爱，酒精和狂欢。 She was also self-centered, self-absorbed, and lazy. He also said that women were less likely to be criminals than men, but prostitutes were still a pretty widespread phenomenon in all societies.
在19世纪初，心理学家发现自己努力解释为什么有些人杀害其他人，没有明显的理由为自己的行为。 They dubbed the phenomenon “杀人狂抹黑”和使用的术语来解释，没有理解的动机杀人。 While even they weren’t too clear on how their idea worked, the disease was first described as lesions that developed on a person’s willpower and made them unable to keep themselves from killing. It was thought that these lesions made the killer view his victim as some kind of threat, and it was first used at the trial of a woman who had murdered her neighbor’s child.
又称杀人的疯狂和道德癫痫，理论持续整个19世纪非常定义模糊。 This allowed it to be used as an explanation and defense in a variety of cases, and it often shows up in the literature of the time. Characters in works by Poe and Balzac describe thoughts that take root in their minds and become obsessions. They can’t explain why they’re obsessed with these things, but those obsessions grow and grow until they can’t control them anymore.
早期的犯罪学家用发现的生物根犯罪行为痴迷。 Like Lombroso, many others believed that those who committed criminal acts were physically less evolved than good, upstanding citizens, and they also believed that you could tell that by a person’s physical attributes. Anthropometry was the science of compiling measurements of the human body and included everything from a person’s height to the length of a person’s fingers. Similarly, craniometry is the taking of measurements from a person’s skull.
当正在开发的理论，成百上千的人被犯罪学家和医生测量，这些测量被编译创建罪犯的轮廓。 Supposedly, traits like wide, sloping foreheads—characteristics that were thought to be a throwback to early man and the Neanderthal—were touted as common犯罪分子之间。 Not long after the theory was developed, it became commonplace for oppressors to cite craniometry measurements as justifications for their actions, turning the whole thing rather weirdly on its head. The British used supposed measurements of Irish skulls as reasoning for the atrocities visited upon them, while France was using it to show that妇女有小的大脑而且比男子少演变。
在19世纪70年代，一个纽约的家人似乎提供了的科学家正是想冷，遗传criminalism的硬证据。 According to sociologist Richard Dugdale, the so-called Juke family (Dugdale used a fake name for his family) was living, breathing proof that criminal tendencies were hereditary. The study first exposed six family members using four different names, all of whom were in jail for one crime or another. Doctors and law enforcement in the area confirmed that the family went way, way back and that they’d always been pretty shady. This was chalked up to the fact that they were said to marry outside of their family而很少和他们的后裔被回溯到一个名为最大，其两个儿子就结婚的两个姐姐和他的女儿小梅变得由低于奉承化名“玛格丽特，已知罪犯的母亲“。
通过达格代尔发布的研究继续描述家庭为酒鬼，小偷，杀人犯，和弱智各类的随后的几代人，妓女用的很多，很多（和许多）沿生和非婚生子女。 A few decades later, the story of the family was seized upon to support the bizarre, dark cause of eugenics (which we’ve讲到这里）。 Supporters of the movement pointed to the family who had supposedly spawned a massive amount of degenerates that included 50 prostitutes, 60 repeat thieves, and 40 women who had spread venereal diseases to hundreds of others.Supposedly the 1,258 members of the family that were alive in 1915 were costing the country what would, in today’s money, come to about $35 million a year in support.
唯一的问题是，这是不完全正确。 When a grave site was uncovered in Ulster County in 2001, it renewed interest in the century-old case study. When researchers started digging, they found that the Juke family wasn’t just one family but a compilation of a number of different families, whose descendants included a New York State governor and other high-ranking members of society’s upper echelons. The case of the Juke family had been paraded before the public as fact-based criminology and science, while in reality it was another weird, disturbing push for forced sterilization and美国优生学。
判断一个人的可能性提交基于其外观犯罪行为的想法是不是一件刚走出从犯罪学的早期教科书。 In the 1940s, a psychologist named William Sheldon created a basis for determining a person’s personality based on their body type—and that included whether or not they were likely to犯罪。 The idea behind morphology is this: When a baby is conceived, it has three different but equal skins. Whichever skin develops to be the strongest determines what kind of figure and body type the person has, which in turn determines basic characteristics about their personality. Ectomorphy refers to a person who develops from the outermost layer of skin and becomes long-limbed and fragile, and in turn develops an introverted personality and an overall frailty.
Endomorphy指谁从最里面的皮肤，这与消化道相关，导致软的，超重的身体和一个懒惰的，但个性开朗发展的人。 And mesomorphy develops from the middle skin and results in a person who is muscular, outgoing, and漂亮的铁杆。 In order to determine just how body type and personality correlated, Sheldon enlisted the help of 200 subjects from the Hayden Goodwill Inn, a social service agency. Based on the body types of his subjects and their records of criminal activity, delinquency, and other social issues, he determined that mesomorphy—the muscular, fit build—was the most likely to lead to a criminal lifestyle.
30年后所做的一项后续研究支持这一想法，但同时也发现，在看一个人的身型变成了有他们是否不打算成为一个罪犯没有影响; it meant that criminals might have a tendency to be muscular, but muscular people didn’t tend to be criminals. The findings pretty much put an end to that line of scientific research.
恶魔在许多方面的先导，以现代犯罪学，并回答一些犯罪学家认为有成立以来，该领域的努力的基本问题。 At the heart of many criminology theories lies the question of nature versus nurture, the idea that a person is either born a criminal or has the free will to choose whether or not to commit a crime. Demonology very firmly establishes that answer by pinning the criminal element on something beyond our realm of understanding. Crime results from demonic interference, and evil doesn’t come from the person—它来自魔鬼。
这是一个想法，是很古老的，不同的文化对如何处理与别人谁明显地被恶魔附身到犯罪活动不同的想法。 The ancient Celts believed that sacrificing the person who had committed the crime would appease the gods who were angered by it, and the future would be revealed to them in the criminal’s death throes and/or entrails (if there were any left). Once Christianity took over, it became much more about a person’s ability to resist the pleasures that were associated with committing a crime, although it was very much acknowledged that some people were taken over completely by a demon and unable to control their actions. This tied demonology and criminology together pretty soundly, wrapping up exorcisms, free will, spells, therapies, and the supernatural together all in one little idiosyncratic package.
这只是到了最近纹身已经成为西方世界比较公认的做法，尽管它已经很多，许多文化中不可或缺的一部分了几百年。 According to our old friend Cesare Lombroso and his article “The Savage Art of Tattooing,” the practice is one that’s closely associated with the criminal element. He cited the number of criminals he had interviewed who had been tattooed, and came to the conclusion that tattoos, in themselves, were a part of the bestial side of man’s nature. He said that in order to undergo the procedure you had to have a higher tolerance of pain than the respectable person, as well as be willing to go through it for what he saw as no other reason than vanity.
他列举了各种各样的纹身及其含义，从马的头部来表示动物的人已杀至舞女，无头女性，链和锚，并用箭头刺穿，象征着女性心中的伤，被遗弃，或虐待。 Lombroso said that it all adds up to proof that tattoos tell a criminal history and knowing how to read them means that you know how to read a dark life story. He also cited the use of gang tattoos for recognition and as badges of honor, and said that the sheer number of tattoos that many criminals have is nothing short of proof of their insensitivity and inability to feel pain. According to Lombroso, the fact that tattooing has been used in a number of different cultures he deemed less advanced was the final proof that, in his words, “Tattooing is, in fact, one of the essential characteristics of primitive man, and of men who still live在野蛮状态“。
这一理论的支持来自一个奇怪的地方，开启了本世纪初的建筑师阿道夫·鲁斯，谁厌恶过度的装饰，他在社会上看到无处不在。 He likened the extra decoration—tattoos as well as clothing styles—to being associated with the vanity of the criminal element. He even went so far as to say that any person with tattoos who died out of prison was just躲着子弹谚语。
在19世纪初，研究人员正在研究的想法，一个人的可能性犯了某种类型的犯罪被直接关系到天气- 和研究似乎表明，这是一个合理的理论。 It was so legitimate, in fact, that criminologists were still looking into it in the 1980s, when it was only then largely debunked. The original theory stated that violent crimes were more likely to occur in warm climates or during the hottest months of the year, while crimes against property, like break-ins and car theft, were more likely to be committed in colder weather.
谁第一个研究早期的想法犯罪学家提出，这是在确定哪些类型的罪行将犯下的最大因素之一。 Later researchers disagreed that it was a major factor, but still weighed in on the side of temperature and climate being one of many factors. One of the supposedly most telling studies was one that was done on assault cases in New York City between 1891 and 1897. A look at 40,000 different cases led to the conclusion that assaults and riots were more likely to happen in the hot summer months, when people’s blood was literally boiling. Later, it was found that there were other social factors that could explain away the various criminal acts, and the idea that it had something to do with the weather fell by the wayside.
弗洛伊德的工作永远不会到来没有一定程度的争议，以及他对犯罪行为的想法也不例外。 Freud believed that we’re all pre-programmed with some basic desires, and it’s these desires that have kept us alive as a species. That includes the Id, the part of our personalities that we’re born with. The Id controls our desire for pleasure and immediate gratification, and it’s the Id that gets angry when we don’t get what we want.
弗洛伊德也有一些具体的东西，说的Id的想法，犯罪性质。 The first was that the Id was our more bestial side, and there was a part of us that wanted little more than to return to the state we existed in before we were civilized, rational, and bound by the constraints of society. Because the Id is only concerned with the self, it’s the part of a criminal’s mind控制它们。 Freud also compared criminal tendencies to hysteria, and thought that they were two sides to the same coin. The only difference was that in someone suffering from hysteria, they don’t know the reason for their suffering. In the case of the criminal, he said, the criminal himself knows the cause, but he’s keeping it hidden from the rest of the world.
根据精神分析学家约翰·鲍比，主要的原因是人们最终转向犯罪的生命就是因为缺乏与他们的母亲的亲密关系之一。 Citing the importance of imprinting that had been confirmed in another study using ducklings, Bowlby went on to explain his very Freud-inspired theory by stating that the first five years of a child’s development were crucial, and the bond established with a mother (biological or otherwise permanent) would determine how capable they were of feeling affection and concern for others, and whether or not they would制定犯罪倾向。
他的结论大多是从一个叫“44个大盗”，他在接受采访谁是在指导诊所参加例会青少年研究得出。 It was found that more than half of the teens who were getting counseling for early criminal acts (like shoplifting) had spent much of their childhood separated from their mothers. On the other hand, his control group, who suffered from emotional problems but hadn’t committed any crimes yet, hadn’t suffered the same separation. Even though the study has had numerous others built upon its findings, critics point out some major flaws in the study. Bowlby got his data from interviewing his subjects, and other researchers have pointed out that they’re not exactly the most non-biased sources of data. He also absolutely neglected to factor in any other variables like family income and education, making the whole thing a bit unscientific.