眼看在浴缸的独角兽并不总是精神疾病的征兆。 Hallucinations are surprisingly common. Healthy individuals can trigger otherworldly experiences with coffee, the wrong medication and gazing at a loved one.
深端可怕。 Some people live with epic hallucination disorders that cannot be fully explained or treated. Experts are also stumped about the time when touch appeared to give police officers visions, or why most grieving people see the dead.
当世界卫生组织采访了31000名平民，该调查旨在衡量18个国家的心理健康。 Instead, it encountered something truly odd. Around 1 in 20 people reported seeing at least one hallucination during their lifetime. What made this so weird was that none of them used drugs, alcohol or had dreamed the event. These were normal, healthy individuals.
与精神疾病的人进行事先筛选出来。 There was a chance that some of the participants were undiagnosed. However, this failed to explain the rampant percentage of hallucinations, which seemed to be fractionally more common in women, singles and the unemployed. Perhaps the most eye-opening lesson was that seeing things was no longer connected exclusively to serious mental illness. Most of the volunteers were healthy, high-functioning people with normal lives.
频率也产生的问题多于答案。 The researchers cannot say why only one-third experienced a single hallucination in their past, while another third experienced two to five events in their life.
虽然抓着你的第四天早上的咖啡，你看到小丑摆在会议室的吊灯？ Relax, you are not losing your mind. The problem is not a mental illness. Blame the coffee bean. In fact, you can point a finger at anything that contains caffeine.
神奇的数字似乎是咖啡因315毫克。 A person can consume that much after just three cups of brewed coffee, six cups of tea or nine colas. Even one strong boutique cafe coffee comes close. After consuming the given amount, the risk for auditory and visual hallucinations are three times higher than before.
该周期可以是恶性的。 When people suffer from caffeine-triggered hallucinations, few know the true cause behind it. Like millions of others, they rely on tea or coffee for emotional comfort and might consume more while trying to process the boardroom clowns. Caffeine is a stimulant that triggers the release of the stress hormone cortisol, increasing jumpy thoughts. More worry, more coffee, more hallucinations.
有一个快速测试任何人都可以拿，如果你是敏感的，迷幻的时间是待价而沽。 The experiment lasts 10 minutes and involves staring into the eyes of another person. That is all that you need to do. Some say the best results happen while doing it with a loved one and certainly, that will be less awkward than staring at a stranger on the bus.
乔瓦尼·卡普托，意大利心理学家发明的，他测试了20人，看看这个简单的行为可能会改变他们的意识。 After the couples gazed at each other for 10 minutes, the results were curious. Apart from creating feelings of disassociation, the group hallucinated as if they were being paid. Strangely, they reported only certain kinds of visions.
大约90％的人认为自己的伴侣的脸扭曲着某种畸形。 For 75 percent, there was an encounter with a monster. Bizarrely, half of them reported that the face they stared at turned into their own and 15 percent hallucinated that their partner turned into a relative.
仿佛在学校，社会隔离，和身体虐待骂人不坏够欺负的孩子，他们还站在幻觉的一个更大的机会。 Indeed, by the time they turn 18, most of these young adults will experience a psychotic episode and for some, it will turn into a lifetime struggle. Their chances of seeing and hearing non-existing things are five times higher than normal.
这是不是唯一的可怕事实。 When the Universities of Warwick and Bristol performed a thorough investigation into the matter, they found that bullying must be stopped at the primary school level if a child is to be given a normal prognosis for the future. By the time kids reach secondary school, even if the bullying stops, it is already too late. The problem is that most bad behavior between young kids is often dismissed as rough-housing or not taken as serious as bullying between older children.
最令人沮丧的现实是，欺凌不必持续多年。 Some kids are briefly abused and with it, their risk factor for hallucinations and future mental health problems also quadruple.
精神分裂症的商标被看到和听到的东西是不存在的。 A particularly frightening manifestation is hearing voices. Some voices utter silken whispers, while others yell profanities. Needless to say, this causes suffering and difficulties for patients having to deal with an already difficult condition.
在2012年，研究人员决定找到一种方法来训练精神分裂症患者忽略假声音。 But first, they had to understand the brain’s role in this trickery. This was important because we hear with our brains as much as the parts that make up our ears. The results were astonishing and disturbing, but in the end, they provided the first real hope to eliminate fake voices.
令所有人吃惊的是，幻觉谈话淹没了真正的声音。 A peculiar brain malfunction activated regions when nobody spoke (triggering verbal illusions) and shut down when somebody spoke for real. The glitch was so bizarre that it almost seemed like some kind of ridiculous theory. Indeed, the researchers failed to find any reference to their conclusion in the history of medical literature. However, the study’s brain scans proved without a doubt that the glitch was real and powerful.
这一发现让他们设计一个iPhone应用程序，列车大脑对声音正常响应。 One woman reported that her battle with the voices in her head had improved significantly and if more patients experience the same success, the study could provide a groundbreaking treatment in the fight against schizophrenia.
幻觉被毁掉荷兰妇女的生命。 For as long as she could remember, the unnamed patient dreaded looking at other people—because their faces turned into dragon heads. Whenever she had to stare at someone, the person’s face elongated before turning reptilian. The ears grew longer, skin blackened and the eyes turned large with bright colors irises.
这可能是饲料为那些曳“爬虫外星人在我们中间”的信徒。 But she was not one of them. Her condition is very real and debilitating. The patient failed to hold down a job because talking to dragons interfered with her social interactions. Worse, the creatures also poured from electrical sockets, computer screens, and even dark spaces.
这种情况称为prosopometamorphopsia。 Nobody knows the exact cause but sufferers see distorted faces. However, the prolific and dragon-specific theme seen in the 52-year-old patient’s case was baffling. Blood tests, brain scans and neurological examinations all turned out normal. Luckily, after many attempts, based on educated guesses, treatment with the anti-dementia medication rivastigmine put down most of the dragons and she successfully went back to work.
当采取每周一次，甲氟喹有助于防止疟疾。 But in some cases, the pills trigger horrific side-effects. One of the most notable cases happened to Tim Notee, a 20-year-old student who purchased Lariam in 2012, right before visiting Ghana.
的影响开始，而他仍然在荷兰和包装他的行程。 His mind became so scattered that his mother had to finish his trip preparations. After arriving in Ghana, the hallucinations began. Entire walls appeared to move. He thought he shared a body with a grasshopper. Within a week, he lost his grip on reality. Notee firmly believed that Jesus was his older brother, that he personally knew God, and fervently wrote a new religion.
他认为他能创造奇迹，剃他的身体看起来更加纳，并答应让他忧心的父亲，他们会满足布鲁斯·斯普林斯汀。 Notee turned ill and was admitted to hospital where a doctor immediately recognized the Lariam’s side-effects and told him to stop taking the pills. But by now, Notee was no longer God’s second son. He was Jesus and he told everyone.
他被空运到紧急诊所，他告诉医生他的血液可以治疗疟疾。 At one point, the staff had to jump him because he tried to flee his treatment. Then his room’s TV “communicated” with him. The young man escaped the hospital and ended up at the TV station. After three manic weeks in Ghana, Notee was finally taken home and ensconced in a Dutch psychiatric facility. A treatment with anti-psychotic medication nearly zombified him but Notee eventually made a full recovery.
很少有人听说过叫查尔斯·邦尼特综合征（CBS）幻觉状态。 Most of us who hallucinate hear the odd voice or see something minor. But those who suffer from CBS experience a unique form of hell.
该综合征的可怕。 The condition seems to be triggered by the loss or impairment of vision. Once CBS hits, patients see entire rooms morph into different locations, animals, people, entire buildings, massive vehicles, monsters, giant patterns, words that are scrawled everywhere, and things like spiders, water and plants. Like, lots of them. The visions are also eerily quiet.
尽管CBS的可怕的性质，很少有人挺身而出。 What holds them back is not the torment of the hallucinations but fearing that they will be diagnosed with dementia. However, most dementia-induced visions occur with sound. Because sufferers tend to stay silent, nobody knows how many people are affected or how common CBS truly is. Solid data about the condition and treatments are also practically non-existent.
当我们失去所爱的人，大多数人会做任何事情再次见到他们。 But when they actually get a glimpse of the deceased, the experience is so frightening that the majority never mentions the ghostly moment. The main fear is that others might think that they are crazy.
看到或听到死心爱的人是非常常见的。 It even has a name. Scientists call these visions post-bereavement hallucinatory experiences (PBHEs). Up to six out of ten people either hear or see somebody they recently lost. The hallucinations can be vivid. The dead turn up sitting in their favorite chairs or call out the living person’s name.
PBHEs可以安慰或令人痛心的，取决于个人的意见和悲伤的阶段。 For some, it’s a sign that there is life after death. However, for now, scientists favor the possibility that PBHEs is related to the flashbacks experienced by individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder.
在2016年，在美国俄勒冈州一个女人看到了一些不安。 The 54-year-old called the police and told them that eight people were attempting to take the roof off her car. Since it was 3 am, they were clearly stealing or vandalizing her property. But when the officers arrived, there were no metal-snatchers and the car was fine.
女的叫第二次，声称人是背部和锯走在车辆。 The cops did not bring cuffs. This time, they took her to the emergency ward for hallucinations. However, she was declared fit and send home. The story might have ended there but soon enough, four other people also started to hallucinate. One was the 78-year-old patient living with the woman (who was a caregiver), one was a hospital staff member who treated the caregiver, and two officers who investigated also started showing symptoms.
血液测试表明什么。 No contaminants were found on the five individuals, inside the police car, at the caregiver’s residence nor at the emergency ward. Some believe that the group suffered from mass hysteria, an event that occurs when people “catch” something they see and fear in someone else. However, this theory is insufficient.
当然，这是不愉快的，看看这个女人产生了幻觉，也许她的病人下意识地模仿她。 But police and hospital staff work with ill and disturbed people on a daily basis, making them uniquely qualified not to catch mass hysteria. The only thing the four had in common was that they touched the original patient.