人们喜欢看到一个英雄下跌。 Perhaps it’s the shock and the thrill, or perhaps it’s the gratifying thought they are no better than the rest of us. Whatever it is, when we see a hero made to look like dirt, we applaud.
很少有人做出比甘地更容易的目标。 It’s not just that he’s a saint — he’s an easy target, too. He’s a man from a foreign culture that’s easy to misunderstand, and his life is full of complicated moments that, pulled out of context, can be made to sound horrible.
但有一点没有道理所有关于甘地的隐藏的黑暗的一面的故事。 Gandhi was simply a man who believed passionately in peace – and his reward has been a whole slew of books degrading his name.
1893年，甘地前往南非。 He was there to fight for the rights of Indian expats, but while he was there, he made a few statements about Africans that seem incredibly shocking today.
多本图书已被写入关于他的时间里面，最叫他“种族主义者” - 而不是他们所说的一切都是谎言。 Gandhi said that Africans are “troublesome, very dirty, and live like animals”; he called them “savages”, and repeatedly used the racist term “kaffirs”.
这是真的 - 甘地，作为一个年轻人，可称为“种族主义者”。 But criticizing Gandhi for his time in South Africa is like criticizing the Apostle Paul for his time as Saul. Gandhi grew up. He changed.
以后在生活中，甘地开始呼吁“在南非的觉醒” - 意为非洲权限的革命。 He ordered his followers, when they went to South Africa, to live under the same restrictions the black population endured to make sure they knew how they suffered. And he openly mocked the idea of the “noble savage”, saying, “They are certainly noble, but no savages.”
“甘地一定要原谅那些偏见和在时间和情况的背景下判断。 We are looking here at the young Gandhi, still to become Mahatma, when he was without any human prejudice save that in favor of truth and justice.”
作者阿兰达蒂·罗伊写了一整本书，批评她所谓的“甘地神话”。 “It is time to unveil a few truths,” she said, before accusing Gandhi of supporting the caste system.
种姓制度是一个古老的信仰，人类被分为五个不同的种姓。 Priests and teachers, it says, are the top of humanity. At the bottom are the so-called “untouchables” – people like street sweepers and latrine cleaners, considered the bottom of humanity.
它是你可能指责支持甘地最奇怪的事情之一。 His stance on caste was unambiguous. In fact, in 1932, he went on hunger strike specifically to protest the caste system.
像大多数反对甘地的指责，有一个微小的，出的上下文在这一个真理的内核。 Gandhi was a Hindu and he believed, on religious grounds, that people were born in certain castes.
“这种宗教，如果它可以被称为这样的，在我的鼻孔很臭，”甘地说，关于种姓制度。 “This certainly cannot be the Hindu religion.”
这是一个真实的故事 - 其实，它来自甘地本人。 When he was 16, Gandhi left his father’s bedside, caught in what he called the “grip of lust”, and spent the night with his wife, Kasturba. While he was gone, he missed his father’s final breath.
这是一个多汁的故事，但只有真正因为甘地告诉它的方式。 To him, this was the life-changing moment that taught him the evils of sexual desire. He believed that sexual lust had ruined his life and, because of this moment, swore never to touch wine, meat or women again. After his father’s death, Gandhi swore to only have sex to procreate.
就像关于南非的故事，这是甘地的起源故事的一部分。 Is a moment he regretted and a part of what made him the man he would become.
但是，即使作为一个起源故事，这一次是真的只是甘地击败了自己白白。 If anyone less puritanical about sex told the story, it would be as bland as bland could be. All that really happened is that Gandhi sat by his father’s side while he was dying and, went nightfall came, stepped away for a moment to see his wife.
这是甘地本人谁变成了故事到这一点阴险，色欲堕落。 If anything, his take on the story is just proof of how hard the man could be on himself.
其中最难的事情，接受有关甘地的是他对性的看法。 Missing his father’s death took a toll on him, and he manifested that guilt into a complete and total rejection of sexuality. And, in a lot of ways, that resulted in some strange behavior.
在他的晚年，甘地开始表演“纯度测试”。 He wanted to completely conquer his sexual desires, saying he wanted to “become a eunuch mentally”, and so he had women – including his own great-niece – sleep naked in the same bed as him to test his willpower.
好了 - 诚然，一个有点怪异。
这不只是一个印第安文化的一部分，它只是甘地做了一个奇怪的事情。 A lot of people have suggested it proves he’s a pervert, and it’s pretty reasonable to assume that – at the very least, on a subconscious level – this was a subtle sign of how much Gandhi was struggling with his vow of chastity.
从来没有人出面说甘地打动了他们。 Sushila Nayar, one of the women Gandhi is most often accused of touching, has said she only slept with him “as I would with my mother”. Likewise, his great-niece Manu described it as being like put to bed “with great love”, as if by a mother.
甘地从来没有把它藏。 When he found out that people thought it was strange, he made it a point to talk openly about it, wanting to make sure that he wasn’t hiding anything he did.
作家约瑟夫·莱利维尔德写了一整本书，批评甘地。 He advertised it as “catalogs of Gandhi’s hypocrisy”, setting out to prove that Gandhi was a monster. Among his evidence was the juicy, often-repeated fact that Gandhi called Hitler his “friend”.
这是真的，甘地写信给希特勒打开写着“亲爱的朋友” - 但如果莱利维尔德字面上刚刚看了一个多字的信中，他就已经意识到在所有一无所知丑闻有。
“你是今天的一个人在世界上谁可以阻止战争，可以减少人类对野蛮状态。 Must you pay that price for an object however worthy it may appear to you to be? Will you listen to the appeal of one who has deliberately shunned the method of war not without considerable success?”
甘地是客气，他试图在每一个机会讨好希特勒 - 但这只是因为他想有说服力。 He only ever called Hitler a “friend” when he was trying to convince him to put an end to the Second World War.
“犹太人应该主动提出自己的屠刀，”甘地曾经说过。 “They should have thrown themselves into the sea from cliffs.”
这是一个非常令人震惊的报价 - 所以这并不奇怪，它被用来诋毁甘地不止一次。 But in context, it’s not as crazy as it seems.
甘地有一些强烈的持有，不寻常的信念。 He was happy to die for a cause. During one of his many fasts-to-death, he openly embraced his imminent death, saying: “This is a god-given opportunity that has come to me, to offer my life as a final sacrifice to the downtrodden.”
最重要的是，他在任何情况下和平认为，即使有人正准备杀了你。 In 1908, he was horribly beaten and left for dead. He didn’t defend himself – and afterward, he asked people to forgive his attackers.
他坚持他的追随者同样的标准。 When the Indian people started rioting in response to a British massacre, Gandhi declared a fast-to-death, saying that he wouldn’t eat until his countrymen stopped using violent methods.
当你把它应用到大屠杀听起来可能有点疯狂 - 但甘地认为非暴力是一种普遍美德，无论多么可怕的情况。 The only hope for a better world was to refuse to respond to violence with violence, no matter how terrible the enemy. As he put it:
“每一个真理，如果真的是真理，礼物本身是普遍，即使它是不是全部的真相。 If something is true, then it must be true for all people and at all times.”
在这本书中“谎言，该死的谎言和历史”，格雷姆·唐纳德说，我们甘地的升值是一个“自我欺骗的形式。”他的圣人，他认为，是“神话，他巧妙编织为自己”。 And then he proves it by quoting Gandhi on saying: “I do not consider Hitler to be as bad as he is depicted.”
那封信，他叫希特勒他的“朋友”相结合，这一切都完美的饲料，使甘地声音像是纳粹支持者 - 但是，这不可能从事实并非如此。 Gandhi was simply against war in all forms, and this was part of his call to end World War II peacefully.
甘地，但严格认为，没有战争是有史以来值得战斗。 He wanted the Allies to “fight Nazism without arms”, saying that winning through weaponry would stop an enemy but condemn humanity. The only hope for a better future, he believed, was to show a monk-like refusal to fight.
这不完全是切实可行的建议，但广岛的轰炸长崎 - 虽然不一定证明甘地右肯定有助于我们了解甘地想说。 He didn’t care who won the war. He cared about what became of humanity when the fighting was finished.
有一个整部电影关于甘地与他的儿子，Harilal复杂的关系。 It’s called “Gandhi, My Father”, and the producers advertise it as “a story about a clash of principles.”
这是真的 - 甘地和他的儿子始终没看见眼睛对眼睛。 Gandhi did kick his son out and it was, in a way, a clash of principles. This wasn’t a little squabble over nothing, though – Gandhi’s son had raped his own seven-year-old daughter.
Harilal对自己孩子的暴力性侵犯是如此的残酷，她不得不被送往医院。 That was why Gandhi and his son didn’t get along – because Harilal had violently, incestually raped a seven-year-old child.
甘地继续写他的儿子不管。 One of his letters begged his son to lay off alcohol, including a line that’s been repeated a few times since:
这是针对他使用另一行 - 而且，是的，甘地已经告诉他的儿子，他过得比醉酒死亡。 But this was a letter written to a man who, when he got drunk, raped children.
这当然使甘地的声音就像一个自私的，疏忽的人通过自己的冷酷率性驱动的 - 但没有什么能够从事实并非如此。
甘地的支持者每个人知道他们冒着坐牢。 Gandhi openly and bluntly warned people that prison was looming, telling them: “It takes courage to resist and not strike back. It takes courage to risk going to jail.”
它实际上是甘地的计划的一部分。 Every time Britain jailed an Indian, they lost a worker and lost profits. If enough people went to prison, Gandhi believed, Britain would realize they had no choice but to negotiate.
甘地不只是暂停他的抗议没有任何理由 - 他这样做是为了使用暴力阻止他的追随者。 When Gandhi suspended the movement in 1922, for example, it was because his followers had burned down a police station with 22 people inside.
甘地想要解放印度 - 但他不愿意让别人死。 Every time his own followers became violent, he’d force them back on the path of peace.
“关于甘地的真理，说：”哈佛大学的论文，绯红色，是他让自己的妻子，Kasturba，模具。 As they explain it:
“英国医生跟老公说了一针青霉素就医治她; nevertheless, Gandhi refused to have alien medicine injected into her body, and she died.”
他们并不是第一个人传播这个故事。 It’s a popular one – and one that’s completely untrue.
是的，甘地没有让医生给他的妻子青霉素 - 但它不是因为它是外国人。 It was because the penicillin used animal products, and his wife was strictly vegetarian.
这似乎微不足道的西方观众，但甘地和Kasturba，它基本上是保护她的身体和保护她的灵魂之间做出一个决定。 To them, the soul was simply more important – and even then, her death tore Gandhi up. Gandhi spent the rest of his life struggling with the decision, repeatedly wrestling with the question of whether or not he’d done the right thing.
他也被称为伪君子，因为，在以后的生活，他带着奎宁 - 其他西药 - 治疗自己的疾病。 But the quinine he took was an orally-ingested medicine from tree bark, without any animal by-products.
他的价值体系可能很难理解 - 这就是为什么它很容易画他的恶棍。 But Gandhi wasn’t some monster. He was just a man from a different culture, whose beliefs were different from our own.
但是，所有这些信念的，一来他看重的最多的是他在和平的信念。 And that made him a great man.