他们欢迎我们融入生活，调整我们的健康和穿白色权威夹克。 While doctors are behind most medical studies, they sometimes become the subject. In recent times, researchers have found that physicians’ DNA undergoes scary changes and that salesmen influence their decisions way too much. Things can also get weird in the operation room, with fires breaking out on patients while others laugh their way through brain surgery.
每年，成千上万的人拿起感染在医院。 Ironically, it is the caring hands of the medical staff that transmit bugs between wards. Since this can cost lives, New South Wales launched a year-long campaign to educate workers at public hospitals. After the initiative ended in 2007, the University of New South Wales (UNSW) and the NSW Clinical Excellence Commission wanted to know if anybody ever took it seriously. Using four studies, they compared the number of staff who cleaned their hands after visiting a patient. There was an improvement, but low numbers still showed up. Doctors who practiced better hygiene rose from 26 percent to 38 percent. Nurses improved from 54 percent to 65 percent. The doctors even lost to allied health workers who went from 40 to 48 percent.
脑外科手术是古老的。 The印加文化的擅长环锯术，颅骨手术，在患者居住的头骨削减孔。 In 2018, a study examined 800 Inca skulls and found that the craft started out rough but refined over the centuries. By 1500 A.D., up to 83 percent of Inca skulls had signs of healing. More impressive was the fact that their survival rate outstripped 19th-century soldiers who faced head surgery during the American Civil War. Nearly half of them died. Experts are not sure why the Inca performed brain surgery but it could not have been similar to the chaotic, understaffed field hospitals that undoubtedly contributed to the war’s casualties. However, Inca physicians grasped the concept of infection and dealt with it effectively. How exactly they did that or what was used as anesthesia remains unknown. Civil War operations, by comparison, was an infection festival. Doctors did not sterilize their equipment or hands before digging inside wounds for shrapnel.
医学界的一个有争议的方面是医药推广。 When does it cross the line between making real solutions available to doctors and patients, and treating both like a business where sales and profits overshadow ethical medical practices. In 2010, researchers from nine institutions scoured all the available literature on the topic. It was an exhaustive effort but the study provided an answer. The制药促销是不是一件好事。 The doctors who allowed it prescribed more medication and produced a poorer prescribing quality than those who did not. The review advised medical professionals to avoid these sales techniques and instead look up information from sources with no links to pharmaceutical companies. Considering that drug promotions rake in billions for those companies, they might refuse the review’s suggestion that their finances and promotions should be taken over by an independent organization.
多年来，医生奥兹展会是由数以百万计的观众观看的。 Presented by Dr. Mehmet Oz, the program won an Emmy in 2018. The doctor’s rise to success was meteoric and he crashed just as hard. The majority of his medical advice did not hold up to scrutiny, either. In fact, a 2014 study found that nearly half of all Oz’s claims were sucked from his thumb. Besides the harmful information, the doctor flogged so many deceptive减肥产品他被传唤在参议院小组委员会面前作证。 Although his history of malpractice is well established, this did not stop the Trump administration from appointing Dr. Oz to the Council on Sports, Fitness and Nutrition. The council aims to improve the nation’s nutrition and encourage more regular exercise. Recently, the council refocused on kids. With Mehmet Oz now advising the U.S. government on children’s physical health, many experts are worried.
在2012年，医生卢奇安·利普发表了他的研究，这是许多患者的欢迎入场。 He believed that too many of his fellow doctors were mean. He found that a lot of people hate going to the hospital, not just because they are ill or injured, but because they have had a past experience where doctors devalued them. Leape’s studies showed the panoramic way physicians misbehaved around others. It ranged from nuclear emotional outbursts, cussing and欺凌工作人员表示，由于冷漠或烧毁的兴趣不大。 The most common problem was dismissive treatment, belittling or ignoring patients. Leape found that too many people leave the emergency room feeling like doctors treat them like idiots, another file or a problem. Anything except for a human being. Apparently, medical school instills a sense of entitlement because doctors hold a special place in society. In a sense that is true. However, Leape and many patients feel that some doctors let this go to their heads.
荷兰已经允许医生安乐死的病人，因为2002年的行为是合法的，当一个人的痛苦变得难以管理，并同意是无可辩驳的。 Recently, a Dutch doctor was dragged to court for the first euthanasia to turn into a criminal case. The prosecution felt that the patient could not give proper consent. The 74-year-old woman had severe老年痴呆症。 However, four years ago, she wrote a statement detailing the wish to be euthanized rather than ending up in a care facility. There came a point when her physician decided the time had come. Two other doctors then reviewed the situation and agreed. A date was set and the doctor, the patient, her husband, and grown daughter had coffee. The 74-year-old’s drink was laced with a sedative but it failed to knock her out. Another dose was given via injection. She slept but just as the doctor was about to give her the second and fatal injection, the woman woke and stood up. Her family held her down and the drug was administered. The court eventually acquitted the doctor, saying that the deeply demented state of the patient prevented her from verifying her death wish that day and that the written declaration was sufficient.
在某些脑部手术，患者必须保持清醒。 Doctors talk to them to ensure that some regions, like the one that handles language, remains unaffected. Needless to say, some people panic after waking up from the initial sedative and reality hits. You know, your head is locked into place, a piece of skull is gone and your brain is open. Patients have been known to panic, grab at their brains or fight the head brace. In 2018, an epilepsy patient underwent the procedure. Usually, sedation and distraction keep patients calm. This time, the doctors went the fun route. It did not start out good. When the woman woke up, she was so anxious that she cried. Something needed to be done before she became too distressed. The idea was to make her laugh. Instead of clowning around, the doctors stimulated a group of brain cells called the cingulum bundle. This region was believed to control the mouth muscles during laughter but that it had nothing to do with emotion. As her doctors had hoped she would, the woman proved conventional thought wrong. She laughed her way through the surgery.
2018年，六名儿科医生想知道要花多长时间才能乐高积木块通过消化系统移动。 The doctors, all from the United Kingdom and Australia, chopped off the heads of Lego people and swallowed the toy noggins. From there on, things got a little weird. Each scientist had to pick through their own poop to find the toy part again. To lighten things a bit, they came up with fitting tags for their rating systems. For days beforehand, and during the retrieval phase, they graded stool consistency with the SHAT (大便硬度及硬度经纬仪)规模。每当有人发现一个乐高头，它给他们一个屁(查找和检索时间)。在一天结束的时候，一个黄色的脸需要27个小时到3天才能穿过一个健康的成年人而没有任何问题。SHAT评分也显示大便的一致性没有改变。这些信息现在可以被添加到研究吞食玩具直接影响的罕见研究中。然而，每个人可能仍然想知道为什么这六名儿科医生中没有人找到他的乐高头颅。
2019年，一名澳大利亚患者接受了紧急手术。这是为了矫正他主动脉上的一个裂口，不是为了引起a火在胸腔附近——这正是发生的事情。开胸手术一开始很正常。不幸的是，病人的健康问题引发了一系列事件，导致了火灾。该 man had an enlarged lung and when doctors accidentally punctured it, they had to compensate for the air leak. They did this by increasing the amount of oxygen in the anesthetic. Since the patient inhaled the anaesthetic, both the oxygen and sevoflurane sedative escaped through the lung leak. The surgical team could smell the volatile mix in the air. A spark from an electrocautery device landed on a dry surgical pack on the patient’s chest. In the densely oxygenated air, the pack combusted. The fire was extinguished and the operation concluded successfully. It was not a one-time freak scenario. This was the eighth chest cavity fire caused during surgery. Just like the Australian case, they all included lungs, electrocautery devices, increased oxygen, surgical packs – and unscathed patients.
2019年，250名医生开始实习时，他们的DNA样本就被采集了。第二个DNA测试是在他们第一个工作年末完成的。结果令人不安。该 first 12 months on the job rapidly aged the new doctors’ DNA. In comparison, other people needed six years before their DNA took the same toll. The scientists found the surprising fact when they looked at telomeres, which is often referred to as the “tips” on chromosomes. It is normal for telomeres to shrink with age but it would appear that occupational stress accelerated the process in the interns. Doctors who worked the longest hours, displayed neurotic personality traits or had tense family situations showed the worst aging. Why does it even matter? Shrinking telomeres is not a good thing. It spikes the risk for cancer, heart disease, and declining mental capacity. Researchers are hoping the study’s results would help reform the brutal hours that doctors face during training and beyond.