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你不会相信你的身体拥有的10件事

人体是一个宏伟的机器。我们的解剖结构是数千年来适应地球环境变化的结果,这使我们成为最复杂的生命形式之一。尽管过去几个世纪医学的进步让我们得以详细探索人类有机体的本质,但我们从未停止在体内发现新的成分和过程。而且,其中的一些成分在以前的时代是不会被认为存在的。从爆炸元素到宇宙物质,在这里你会看到组成你身体的一些最奇怪、最惊人和大部分未知的东西。

也可以看看:10惊人的事情你不知道我们的身体部位可以做


10酒精

含酒精的饮料是世界上消耗最多的饮料之一。目前,全世界每年消耗约360亿升(95亿加仑)的酒精,足以填满1.4万多个奥运泳池。所以很明显,酒精和人类是紧密相连的。事实上,它们之间的联系是如此紧密,以至于人体每时每刻都在产生自己的酒精。

乙醇是一种自然产生的酒精,由有机物发酵而成,是酒精饮料中的酒精。在人体中,口腔和肠道中的细菌群能够产生乙醇。要做到这一点,细菌和酵母会导致碳水化合物(如糖)在胃肠道中发酵。这个过程产生少量的乙醇,随后进入血液。

根据多项研究,一个健康且清醒的人每升血液中通常含有0.8毫克的内源性乙醇(0.26加仑)。甲醇,另一种酒精,也在人体血液中检测到浓度为每升0.6毫克。幸运的是,这些值太小,不容易在血液中检测到,会给人带来法律问题。

但有些人并不那么容易,尤其是那些患有所谓的“自动酿酒厂综合症”(ABS)的人。在这种情况下,一个人的消化系统会产生大量的发酵细菌和真菌,这些细菌和真菌可以从富含糖的食物中制造大量的酒精。拥有腹肌的人每升血液中含有超过4克(0.14盎司)的酒精,以至于他们总是在不喝任何含酒精饮料的情况下就会喝醉。[1]

9臭氧


臭氧是一种不稳定的物质。由三个氧原子组成,臭氧倾向于在几分钟内分解成更简单的分子。因此,必须不断补充大气中的臭氧气体,如果没有某些产生臭氧的来源,臭氧气体就会减少,直至几乎消失。地球上大部分的臭氧是由紫外线辐射、雷暴和人类活动产生的。但你的身体也有贡献。

近20年前,科学家发现,人体的免疫系统会产生臭氧,作为对抗生物威胁的一种方式。我们的身体里有一种叫做中性粒细胞的细胞,它是一种白血球,上面涂有抗体,它可以在体内传播,消灭传染性细菌和真菌。为了完成它们的工作,中性粒细胞用高能氧分子来喂养它们的抗体。然后抗体将这些分子转化成臭氧,这对消灭入侵细菌很有用。嗜中性粒细胞吞噬外来微生物,并用新生成的臭氧分子轰击它们以消灭它们。

因为我们身体的白血球几乎四分之三的嗜中性粒细胞,在每个人产生的臭氧分子的量是足够显著。 However, this is not a good thing – ozone in large concentrations is harmful. At 25 kilometers (15.5 miles) above Earth, ozone composes a gas layer that protects Earth’s life from solar radiation. But near the ground, ozone contributes to air pollution, being one of the main components of the so-called “smog”. And in the human body, ozone breaks down cholesterol, creating toxic molecules that accelerate the development of diseases such as atherosclerosis and arthritis.[2]


8氰化物


对于人类来说,氰化物是一种剧毒化学化合物。 It kills in a short time by preventing cellular respiration in the organism. Cyanide’s lethality is more than proven; it has been used as a chemical weapon to kill countless people over the centuries. For that reason, it is surprising to know that cyanide exists naturally within the human body itself.

氰化物的浓度不同,每天进入我们的身体,由于化学是存在于空气,水和食物,我们吃。 In fact, foods such as apples and spinach are carriers of cyanide. But there is no need to panic – such concentrations are extremely small, in the order of a few micrograms per plant (for the record, a microgram equals one millionth of a gram). In contrast, an intake of 0.1 grams of cyanide is necessary to kill a 70-kilogram (154-pound) average person.

氰化物也被我们的身体产生。 For example, chemical processes in saliva lead to the creation of cyanide gas inside our throats, which is then expelled by breathing. It is estimated that, at any given time, a healthy person can contain up to 50 micrograms of cyanide per 100 grams (3.5 ounces) of tissue. But such compound does not accumulate inside our bodies. Most of it is processed in the liver, and excreted in the urine. Another part is converted into carbon dioxide by our lungs, and like the aforementioned cyanide gas, it is released with each breath.

后面的吸收,生产和氰化物的解毒在人类机体的方法是相当复杂的。 So we must thank our bodies for silently freeing ourselves from such a lethal poison.[3]

7放射性元素


过量的任何类型的辐射是对人体无害。 For example, even if紫外线辐射是不是要烧我们的皮肤,背景辐射比比皆是将推动我们得癌症呢。 But did you know that some radioactive materials also inhabit our interior?

我们的身体内发现的一种放射性元素是钍,在电子装置中使用的重金属。 While we ingest small amounts of thorium daily through food and water, it usually leaves the organism in a matter of days.

另外我们进行了最臭名昭著的物质是铀。 It is a heavy, highly radioactive element that exists naturally across the entire planet. Its biggest uses, as you may know, have been in nuclear reactors and weapons of mass destruction. Studies indicate that an average adult person contains 22 micrograms of uranium in their body, and can ingest about five micrograms daily. The biggest sources of uranium intake are food – especially unwashed vegetables – and water.

一旦体内,铀能进入血液和沉积在各个器官,几个月呆在那里,直到从身体中排出。 Two thirds of the uranium consumed is deposited in our bones.

我们还应该提到钾40,钾元素的放射性同位素,我们通过摄取很多食物,但它是对人体有益还是。 As you can see, we are pretty radioactive. But do not be alarmed; it is unlikely that you will trigger a nuclear explosion just by sneezing.[4]


6贵金属


在你的身体并不是事是危险或放射性,虽然。 There are also precious elements inside you that make you economically valuable by nature. Even so, it is not advisable that you try to get them out of your body to sell them.

首先,我们有。大多数普通人的黄金是在他们的血液,用金占它0.02个百分点。 In total, the human body contains 0.2 milligrams of gold, enough to make a cube of pure gold with a size of 0.22 millimeters (0.008 inches). We also contain silver, another precious metal of low toxicity for human beings. An average person consumes up to 88 micrograms of silver a day, a weight equivalent to that of a few sand grains.

但是,这是太少是有价值的,对不对? Well, researchers have found that human feces also contain gold particles and other expensive metals. One kilogram (2.2 pounds) of human waste could contain a maximum of four grams (0.14 ounces) of copper, silver, vanadium, and gold. In view of this, it has been estimated that the waste of one million people could be worth 13 million dollars.

所以,即使你不知道,你的身体一直是一个赚钱的机器。当然,问题是开采你自己的贵金属并从中获利,因为你可能不得不诉诸一些肮脏的方法来提取它们。[5]

硬毒品的

众所周知,人体会产生一些常用药物的自身版本。例如,我们的身体会产生内源性大麻素,这是一种与化学物质相似的分子大麻。我们的大脑也会产生一种叫做内啡肽的化学物质,它能产生和吗啡一样的止痛效果。但是,人体组织可以自然地产生其他药物,如果剂量足够大,就会危及生命,而且完全是非法的。

其中一种药物叫做二甲色胺,简称DMT。这种药物通常从某些南美植物中提取,可以饮用、吸烟或注射。DMT会产生严重的致幻作用,使用者声称在服用该药物后曾到其他世界旅行或与神灵会面。然而,有证据表明,人类大脑经常产生少量的DMT。据信,这种药物可以在深度睡眠或濒死体验时在体内释放。

另一种人类生产的药物是一种被称为GHB的物质,有时也被称为“液体摇头丸”。“这种物质有多种用途;健美运动员摄取它是为了增加肌肉,而医生则用它来治疗睡眠障碍。但是如果使用不当,GHB会变得非常危险。

在其他情况下,摄入GHB和酒精会导致人死亡或昏迷。这就是为什么当我们知道我们的身体自然地含有这种药物时感到惊讶的原因,尽管它的量很小,也没有害处。GHB存在于身体的许多组织中,在血液中也存在于大脑中,其浓度最高可达每升1毫克。

我们可以很方便地警告说,DMT和GHB都是非法药物,在许多国家都禁止使用它们。所以当你告诉别人你制造了这些物质时要小心,即使这是真的。[6]


4磁场


磁力对生命的延续是必不可少的。例如,太阳的磁场影响保护我们的星球免受太阳辐射宇宙辐射。如果没有地球磁场,太阳辐射会破坏我们的大气层,像放大镜下的蚂蚁一样杀死我们。但是磁力不仅限于天体。生命形式也产生它们自己的磁性,我们也不例外。

电流产生磁力,所以每一个内部有电流流动的物体都有磁场。由于人类依靠电流通过我们的神经系统,后者是产生我们身体内部和周围磁场的神经系统。我们的每个器官都有特定数量的电流,所以身体的每个部位都有自己的磁场。

据估计,人体表面的磁场强度是地球磁场强度的千万分之一。与此同时,大脑的磁场大约是地球磁场的2亿倍。相反,在最具磁性的器官中,心脏是赢家。它的磁场只有地球磁场的一百万倍。心脏的磁场是如此之强,它延伸到体外,据信会影响某些生物过程。

如你所见,人体的磁力非常小。但这并没有阻止一些人声称它们有足够的磁性来吸引金属。另一方面,什么好处能够把勺子粘在身体上,这不是什么众所周知的事情。[7]

3星尘号


这一点比其他的更全面,因为我们不仅有星尘在我们的身体里,但我们实际上是由它组成的。人类是由恒星物质构成的观点已经存在了几十年,但最近我们可以证明这是一个事实。

宇宙形成之初,只有氢和氦等基本元素。当这些化学物质聚集在一起形成第一批恒星时,更重、更复杂的元素开始在这些星体内部产生。这些元素是碳、氮、氧、磷、铁和硫。这些元素反过来又几乎完全构成了人类。

这些元素是如何到达地球的?当恒星到达生命的尽头时,它们通常会爆炸,向外层喷射出大量不同的元素。经过很长一段时间的长途旅行,这些爆炸恒星的残骸落到了地球表面,在那里它们与地球的其他部分混合在一起。然后,植物吸收这些分散在土壤中的元素,我们通过吃这些植物来做同样的事情。

多年来,星内形成的材料成为我们的身体,这是重新建立了这种元素的所有时间的一部分。 Two years ago, researchers discovered that 97 percent of the atoms in the human body are of the same types as those found in stars. Moreover, 93 percent of the body’s mass is believed to be stardust.[8]

2


已经知道了很长的时间,人体发光辐射。举个例子,我们的身体热量产生的红外光,一个类型的电磁辐射是人类无法看到,但其他动物可以。 Now, when it comes to emitting visible light, one might think that such thing is impossible for us. Like almost all matter in the universe, we reflect light, but we do not emit it, right? Well, that is not entirely true.

2009年,从技术的东北研究所(日本)命名为小林正树科学家决定研究人类的生物发光 - 我们的能力来发光。 To do that, he recruited five individuals and photographed their naked bodies during 20 minutes every three hours, for three days. The photographs were taken with cameras extremely sensitive to light. The results showed that certain portions of the individuals such as their necks and heads emitted light constantly, reaching a maximum brightness around four in the afternoon.

这可能是我们的生物钟的结果,因为这是我们下午晚些时候期间花更多的精力。 Scientists believe that our bioluminescence is produced by small molecules called fluorophores, which emit photons after interacting with electrons released by cellular respiration.

但是,如果我们发光,我们为什么不发光,就好像我们是用眼睛手电筒? The answer is pretty ironic: the visible light we produce is too weak for us to see. In fact, such light is a thousand times less intense than what our eyes are adapted to detect. But there it is, coming out from us every second. So not only are you made of stardust, but you also shine like a star. Well, maybe not so much.[9]

1反物质


物质和反物质彼此憎恨。 When these two substances collide they mutually annihilate, leaving only energy behind. But despite how volatile antimatter is in our universe, we have a bit of it inside us, all the time.

要理解这怎么可能,我们需要带回钾-40,这是我们以前说过存在于人体。 As already stated, potassium-40 is one of the radioactive isotopes or variants of potassium, a soft metal. Such isotope decays – that is, it transforms into another element after its atoms lose energy. To do that, potassium-40 can be transformed into calcium-40, through a process called beta-minus decay.

在此过程中,一个钾-40原子失去一些微粒,并产生其他人,包括称为反中微子的反物质粒子。 And this is where the math begins. It is estimated that 5,000 potassium-40 atoms decay per second in the human body. Around 89.25 percent of these atoms undergo beta-minus decay. Therefore, at least 16 million antineutrinos are generated in our bodies every hour.

同时,钾-40也可以被转化成同位素氩40。 This occurs when each of the potassium-40 atoms releases a positron, the antimatter version of the electron. However, this process is very rare, happening in 0.001 percent of cases. But even so, considering the potassium-40 atoms that decay per second, that means the human body generates about 180 positrons per hour.

这是身体内部只有一个放射性同位素转化的结果。 But we also have other elements that decay in the same ways, generating their own antiparticles at every moment. So, congratulations, you are also an antimatter reactor.[10]

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