这几乎是黑人历史月，所以它的时间来谈谈美国的黑人历史上定义的东西：奴隶制。 It’s not exactly a light topic, which might be why there are so many misconceptions about who owned slaves, where slaves came from, how many there were, and how they lived. But there is a lot more variety to “the Peculiar Institution” than your history teacher has taught you.
事实上，大多数南方人没有自己的奴隶。 Although statistics vary from state to state, the 1860 census lists Mississippi and South Carolina as the highest slaveholding states, at 49% and 46% of the European population owning them.
然而，奴隶制被完全融入了南方的权力结构。 In德州，奴隶制是唯一合法的二十年，1845年到1865年。但到了1860年，德州的27％，共计182566个奴隶拥有。 That 27% held 68% of government positions and 73% of the state’s wealth. In that short period of time, slavery managed to become integral to the state’s ruling elite.
因为拥有奴隶与财富和政治权力划等号，许多欧洲家庭渴望达到如此高度。 They were a status symbol, similar to the BMWs and Birkin bags of today; coveted by many, owned by a few.
欧洲的奴隶商人是商人; they wanted the most about of product for the least amount of effort. They had very little interest in traipsing around an entire大陆当他们不得不选择保持基本平稳。
在奴隶贸易的高度，六个之一的奴隶塞内冈比亚，塞内加尔和冈比亚河之间的区域来了。 Today, it consists of Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, and Mali. About a quarter of all slaves sent to the United States came from this area. Another quarter came from west-central Africa, the area of the modern nations of Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Gabon. Even though they spoke different languages, they had a lot in common in terms of culture, traditions, and religion.
相当数量的奴隶也是来自“奴隶海岸”，其中许多船只的锚会。 If the ships still had space, the traders would conduct coastal raids to fill them. Today, it makes up the coast of Ghana.
相比于被运到南美和加勒比地区（图）奴隶的数量，这是微不足道的。 About 4.8 million people were shipped to Brazil to work the country’s gold mines and sugar plantations, about 40% of all Africans brought across the Middle Passage. Another 1.2 million were sent to Jamaica.
历史学家估计，约60,000至70,000的奴隶从加勒比海作出自己的方式到美国，使非洲人总数达到45万。 This means that almost all of the 42 million African-Americans alive today are descended from less than half a million African people.
1776年，奴隶制是在原来的十个三个殖民地的每一个法律。 Slave labor was critical in building the City of Boston, and the Merchant’s Coffee House in New York City held auctions on a weekly schedule. Slaves worked on the docks, in homes, and on farms.
虽然所有的北部国家已经由1804通过法律，禁止奴役，法律并没有立即释放所有在该州的奴隶。 In an attempt to avoid controversy, the laws often废除了奴隶制逐渐。 In New York, the Gradual Emancipation Act freed enslaved children born after July 4th, 1799. But, since it would be irresponsible to turn loose a large number of children with no supervision, they were considered indentured servants until they reached adulthood. This is how New Jersey, the last northern state to outlaw slavery in 1804, still had eighteen slaves in 1860. They were legally considered “apprentices for life.”
尽管大多数美国黑奴的农业（特别是棉花，烟草和水稻）工作约10％居住在城市地区工作。 They worked in a variety of skilled jobs, from dockworkers and firefighters to coopers and blacksmiths. In some cases, plantation slaves were given permission to move to the city and earn money during slow seasons.
在这个城市的大多数奴隶是妇女，在欧洲家庭执行国内任务。富裕家庭拥有一队谁打扫家里的妇女，煮熟的家庭，并没有洗衣服。 Even middle-class families could afford one to help with daily tasks. Some of these women were allowed to live outside the city with other Africans, both slave and free.
行业，如木材行业或砖瓦行业，就买奴隶来抵消劳动力成本。 Railroads used this method as well. There were also municipal slaves, owned and operated by city governments in the same way there was public waterworks and septic systems. The city of Savanah, Georgia owned a number of slaves to maintain roads, build city structures, and clean municipal buildings. It’s even possible they operated part of the local jail.
根据自己的情况，奴隶获得数量不等的免费时间。 On the rice亚博竞技劲爆优惠-种植园南卡罗来纳州和佐治亚州的，每个从被赋予了每日任务和做的时候，他们能渡过了他们是如何选择了一天的休息。 On cotton and tobacco plantations, slaves were left to their own devices after sunset. Some owners offered Saturdays or Sundays rest.
奴隶也将庆祝节日，特别是圣诞节和新年之间的时间。 Work was suspended and everyone enjoyed music, dancing, athletic competitions, and drinking whiskey. It was also a popular time for weddings, as the suspension of work allowed for a formal ceremony and celebration. Some owners would offer presents, ranging from the yearly allotment of clothing to small amounts of cash.
有些业主有一个系统，其中的奴隶可以做一些额外的工作，被称为“过劳”现金。 It could be done for their owner or for other European people in the community. This was especially common if the slave was highly skilled at a particular craft, such as blacksmithing or coopering.
成长中的小花园也很受欢迎，作为家庭既可以出售蔬菜或者吃自己。 As they became more successful, they would be able to purchase animals like pigs and chickens. Others would make straw brooms or baskets to sell at market, along with other handmade items.
用自己的钱，买来的奴隶食物，烹饪工具，服装，化妆品和奢侈品如酒精和烟草。 Not only did this prevent slave owners from having to provide these things themselves, but it gave the slaves a small amount of personal freedom. Some owners argued that this sense of ownership was necessary to prevent rebellion.
奴隶主是紧张的奴隶学习阅读。 After all, literacy had been part of the success of海地从革命，废奴主义文学只是越来越受欢迎。 As a result, many Southern states made it illegal to teach slaves to read. This makes the United States the only country in the world to ban education for slaves.
然而，许多人都反对这一禁令。 On one end, anti-government slave owners were furious that state governments tried to control what they could and couldn’t do with their property. Other slave owners needed their slaves to perform secretarial tasks such as letter writing and filing, to which reading is essential. Baptist churches also defied the law, since it is central to their religion that church members be able to read the Bible.
在17世纪和18世纪，它被认为是不道德的基督教拥有另一种基督教。 Therefore, slave owners not only discouraged their slaves from converting but did their best to hide their moral quandary. They worried that this would encourage abolition movements. So, they viewed the spiritual lives of their property with total disinterest, giving them free rein to practice any religion they wanted.
在19世纪，出现了被称为第二次大觉醒基督教狂热的浪潮。 Methodist and Baptist churches began reaching out to enslaved people, who converted in droves. Unable to prevent the spread of Christianity, slave owners instead hired preachers to give sermons emphasizing passages from the New Testament, especially those that stated slaves should accept their assigned status and their patience and faith will be rewarded in heaven.
穿越中间通道，体验在拍卖会上出售，并被迫为奴明显外伤的平均非洲。 To deal with the trauma, slaves turned to their West African traditions and remade them for American life.
家庭是西非非常重要的。 The tradition of尊敬的爷爷奶奶通过给他们的名字给下一代继续，因为是尊重长辈。 When biological families weren’t available, others in the community took on the responsibilities of being aunts and uncles. These adopted family lines kept stories of life in Africa alive.
大型种植园还可能有“魔术师”谁练西非精神传统的人。 For a fee, they might be able to cure an illness, banish a troublesome spirit, or curse your enemy (who, understandably, might be your owner). The fewer generations a conjurer had going back to Africa, the more potent their power was believed to be.
关于作者：成龙米德是一个博物馆教育家白天和晚上一个作家。 Her writing has appeared on Cracked.com and History Magazine.