语言是不朽的几个秘诀之一。 There are hundreds of people, whether one knows it or not, that the average speaker has preserved from oblivion. They live on in words. A word that originates from a person’s name is called an eponym. Some of the preserved namesakes were less than savory figures. Here are 10 of the weirder lives behind the eponyms.
按摩浴缸。 Come on and enjoy the simmering jets of a jacuzzi. Soak in the warm water and let those problems float away in the height of luxury. Jacuzzi has become shorthand for any model of hot tub. It is an appropriate namesake for a family that was constantly in hot water.
坎迪按摩浴池没有时间放松。 Italy at the dawn of World War I was a bad place to be, especially for a pacifist. His father, Giovanni, ordered the family to flee to America. The war proved to be a great benefit for the peaceful family. The oldest son, Rachele, started designing airplanes to help with the war effort like the Jacuzzi J-7. In a disastrous test flight of his brothers’ planes, Giocondo Jacuzzi and three others crashed near Yosemite. The dreams of an aeronautic empire died with everyone on board that day.
按摩浴缸的家庭在经济上毁了。 In 1925, Rachele started inventing a new water pump. However, Rachele never got a chance to showcase the pump’s true potential. In 1937, Rachele died from a heart attack. His younger brother Candido eventually took control of the business.
1943年，坎迪的襁褓中的儿子，肯，承包脓毒性咽喉炎的可怕情况。 The disease mutated into a full body case of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. To reduce the swelling, Candido implement a regime of “hydrotherapy.” Bathing in warm water minimized his son’s condition. Persevering through these disastrous events, the jacuzzi was born.
开衫。 The buttoning sweater sported by Fred Rogers is one of the coziest garments o the market. Bundled up in a cardigan with a cup of hot cocoa, one is more likely to have visions of sugar plum than dozens of senseless deaths in battle.
在他最有名的诗，“骑兵旅的负责人，”阿尔弗雷德先生丁尼生永生克里米亚战争中最大的军事惨败之一。 Describing the cavalry soldiers’ futile purpose with the iconic stanza, Tennyson wrote that “Theirs not to make reply, Theirs not to reason why, Theirs but to do and die.” Nowhere does Tennyson mention how fashionable the massacre was.
该名男子为毁灭性的失败负主要责任是詹姆斯布鲁德内尔，羊毛衫的第7伯爵。 Brudenell was supposed to tell his troops to assault a retreating battery. Acting on poor communication, he instructed his forces to instead attack a fully protected battery. The frontal assault was calamitous. 118 of the 666 soldiers died from Brudenell’s mistake. During the battle, he could be seen sporting a precursor to the buttoned sweater vest that would eventually bear his name.
里氏震级。 Seismologists no longer rely on the Richter Scale like they had in the past. It still is an omnipresent feature of any news coverage of an earthquake. The Richter Scale measures the magnitude and quantifies the extent of the damage felt during an earthquake. Charles Richter lived a shaky life of his own.
查尔斯·里克特是科学和科幻小说的人。 When not measuring tectonic faults, he was almost always watching Star Trek. An avid Trekkie, Richter chronicled detailed synopsis of every adventure onboard the Starship Enterprise. It is not inherently surprising that a geologist was interested in other planets.
1963年3月13日，埃内斯托·米兰达偷$ 8， Being the kind of person that steals $8, Miranda could not afford an attorney. For several hours, Miranda sat alone as police questioned him. Under the stress, Miranda confessed to the theft and an unrelated kidnapping and rape of an 18-year-old mentally challenged woman. Based upon his confession, Miranda was sentenced to 20 years in jail. Arguing that Miranda’s insufficient knowledge of the law coupled with the coercive nature of the interrogation invalidated the confession, the Supreme Court dismissed the conviction.
埃内斯托·米兰达被重审。 Evidence alone proved his involvement in the rape. He served eleven years in prison. In 1976, Miranda was stabbed in a bar fight. He died at 34. After that, Miranda remained silent forever. In an ironic twist, the suspected killer invoked his Miranda rights while in custody. Never charged with the murder, the suspect fled to Mexico.
杜威十进制系统。 Dividing by subject matter, The Dewey Decimal system helps libraries arrange their collection for easy access. It is a system using math to organize books. It is not a very interesting phrase. The man it is named after was interesting, but for much worse reasons.
梅尔维尔杜威是一个串行性袭击者。 Unlike other librarians, Dewey hired women to work in his libraries. He created a toxic environment by openly groping and squeezing his two female assistants in front of their coworkers. In 1905, four women came forward with stories of harassment. The details of the allegations are unclear, but they resulted in his suspension from the American Library Association, an organization he helped form.
在随后的几年中，不同的女人虐待的附加故事出面。 Testimonials collected by Tessa Kelso, a prominent Los Angeles librarian, revealed that not even Dewey’s own daughter-in-law was off limits. She had to move to stop his unwanted advances. In order to quit celebrating a man who caused so much harm, libraries have begun to strip his names from awards and his celebrated system. It’s time to close the book on Dewey.
阿斯伯格综合症。 Referring to high-functioning members of the autistic spectrum, people with Asperger’s syndrome generally have developmental issues with social interaction. For someone synonymous with a mental disability found in children, Hans Asperger did a lot of damage to children with mental disabilities.
工作作为儿科医生在奥地利维也纳在20世纪30年代和40年代，亚斯伯格纳粹主义的兴起是风靡起来。 Though never actually a member of the Nazi party, Asperger trafficked in the same antisemitism associated with the regime. He supported eugenics and racial sterilization. He scolded his Jewish patients, because he believed they were racially impure.
他与纳粹的关系不是纯粹的意识形态。 For at least two times, he coordinated with the party to send children with disabilities to euthanasia centers. In 1941, Asperger recommended 3-year-old Herta Schreiber and 5-year-old Elisabeth Schreiber to the notorious Am Spiegelgrund compound for something he referred to as, “permanent placement.” Over 800 children were executed during Spiegelgrund’s existence. Herta and Elisabeth Schreiber were among those casualties. On a separate occassion, Asperger sat on a committee that authorized an additional 35 children be sent to Spiegelgrund due to being “uneducable.” This euphemism obfuscates the obvious fact that they would not return from these camps.
海姆利克氏操作法。 Henry Heimlich is one of the few people to become famous for blocked airways. His namesake technique of thrusting upward on the stomach to dislodge objects obstructing breathing is a fundamental practice of modern first aid. However, Heimlich was not always in the business of saving lives.
使用的普及，他收到后，他的突破技术，海姆利希开始欺骗活动好莱坞的精英成员。 Stars like Jack Nicholson, Ron Howard, Bob Hope, Ted Danson, and Amy Irving all donated to his foundation. Their money bankrolled Heimlich’s controversial practice of injecting AIDS victims with malaria. His thoroughly unscientific justification was that the fever from malaria could break HIV’s effects. Outside of peer medical supervision, Heimlich conducted trials in Mexico, China, and Ethiopia. The results have not been published.
最近，海姆利克氏操作法作为救生工具的记录受到了质疑。多年来，海姆利克一直向美国红十字会请愿，要求推广他的技术，而不是对溺水者进行心肺复苏术。对海姆利希无效手法的延迟广泛接受可能导致了不可知的死亡人数。亨利分居的儿子，彼得，公开称他的父亲是一个骗子，捏造了这次行动的成功率。美国红十字会(American Red Cross)不再主张将演习作为第一反应。相反，他们支持对窒息的受害者进行五次有力的背部拍打。