苏联是20世纪最残酷的政权之一，但考虑到其存在和随后崩溃的显著时间表，很多细节已经从公众的记忆中消失。 Moreover, terms like dictatorship are often used casually in political debate without full appreciation of what real tyranny actually looks like. This is why it is important to analyse the specifics of why the USSR is considered one of the darkest periods in human history.
李森科特罗菲姆是苏联科学家谁支持的替代理论，这将成为被称为李森科遗传学。 He was hostile to the idea of genetics which highlighted unchanging traits. This was at odds with his Marxist beliefs, which stated that with the right conditioning, society and ultimately humanity could be perfected.
苏联政府热情地接受了李森科的思想和他的理论被安装为农业科学中唯一可以接受的观点。 Any scientists who challenged this were removed from their positions and publicly smeared. Many were imprisoned and executed. Not only was science handicapped in the Soviet Union for decades, these bogus theories worsened the famines of the 1930s.
持不同政见者被监禁多年的精神病院，强行给改变精神药物的挑战马克思主义学说。 It was claimed that anyone who lived in a socialist system but was still opposed to socialism had to be insane.
苏联当局甚至发明了一个新的精神科期限; ‘sluggish schizophrenia’. Its symptoms included obsessing over philosophy or religion, having ‘delusions of reform’ and having inflated self-esteem. But of course, the disorder was completely made up and deliberately vague so it could be attached to dissidents when useful.
是什么让这个方法特别有效的是，一旦一个人的理智受到质疑，他们没有受到与刑事案件相比，同样的正当程序。这给了国家更强大，因为它是不需要告知被告其案件的基本信息比正常了。 Approximately 20 thousand people were institutionalized under such claims but the total is believed to be significantly higher.
拉夫连季·帕夫洛维奇·贝利亚是斯大林在苏联政治家和国家安全管理员。 He began his career as the chief of police in Georgia and eventually became the head of the secret police, overseer of the Gulag prison system and Central Committee member. Stalin warmly referred to him as “my Himmler”.
除了负责谋杀，酷刑和千百万人民的禁锢，他也是一个著名的性变态。 During his freetime he would prowl the streets of Moscow and identify young women for his henchmen to kidnap and transport to his private accommodation where he would sexually assault them. After his death Beria’s villa was turned into an embassy and during refurbishments the bones of dozens of young women and teenage girls were discovered buried on the property.
历史学家西蒙Sebag蒙蒂菲奥里指出，贝利亚的堕落是苏联领导层之间众所周知的。 While Stalin tolerated Beria due to his reliability, in one instance, when Stalin heard his daughter was at Beria’s house, he frantically called her and ordered her to leave immediately.
劳教所系统最初是由列宁创建的，但在它的斯大林统治下更糟糕。 These camps, which would become known as the Gulag, were used to imprison those accused of political crimes. The conditions in the camps were appalling. Abuse and mistreatment were commonplace, and it’s estimated up to 2 million people died within them.
这些营地工作作为政治恐怖工具，也促进了东西基本上是奴隶劳动。 The Soviet authorities saw the Gulag as a way of helping the economy and believed it could produce a significant amount of income.
古拉格囚犯们经常把工作在矿山，森林，油田，大型建设项目。 Huge amounts of the resources were produced from the forced labour, creating an entire industry in itself. At Kolyma, a region in the far east of Russia, there were 80 Gulag facilities, all dedicated to mining its significant gold deposits.
然而，古拉格竟然是无效的经济模式毫不奇怪，因为奴隶不好好工人。 The labour camps ultimately became a massive drain on State finances.
一些饥荒苏联内发生的农场集体化的结果。 This was largely due to the fact that this policy simply does not work, but what is also true is the Soviet authorities knew that access to food could be used to control the population.
这一策略在20世纪，1932 - 1933年乌克兰大饥荒，被称为大饥荒的最臭名昭著的人造饥荒的一个应用。 What was particularly cruel about this famine was that it wasn’t solely caused by incompetence, bad policy or denial. Rather it was deliberately manufactured and worsened by Stalin as a means of wiping out the Kulaks, peasant farmers who were economically more successful than the rest of the population and thus, class enemies.
历史学家们还推测，饥荒，以削弱其国家身份在乌克兰的目标。 Ukrainian nationalists had put up fierce resistance to Bolshevik rule during the Russian civil war and Stalin was not willing to risk the region rising up. After seizing crops and livestock, Soviet forces closed off the borders and arrested- or just shot- anyone that tried to flee. It’s estimated that four million Ukrainians died as result of this famine but the true figure will never be known as there was a coordinated effort to cover up the death toll.
虽然这是事实，纳粹主义和共产主义是苦的敌人，两种意识形态看到他们互相比非独裁的竞争对手更多的共同点。 After all, both are, fundamentally socialist systems.
他们的不安，但互利协会在1939年8月见顶与苏德互不侵犯条约。 Officially, this was a neutrality pact but in reality it was also an agreement on which areas of Eastern Europe the two regimes would take over. Poland was the main target of this deal, and within two weeks of each other, the two powers occupied the nation in September 1939. As the Nazis rounded up Jews in their half of the country, the Soviets systematically murdered Polish intellectuals and military officers in their sector.
此协议之前甚至几年，这两个政权的秘密警察盖世太保和NKVD，已经通过交换谁逃离各自国家持不同政见者的合作。 More bizarrely, the NKVD handed over numerous German communists to their Nazi counterparts. Many of those who were traded between the two agencies would meet their end in either the Gulag or SS concentration camps.
当苏联的暴行进行了讨论，大部分重点放在斯大林。 However this means the crimes of other earlier revolutionary figures are overlooked, in particular with the USSR’s founder, Vladimir Lenin.
列宁坚信，有可能是从资本主义到共产主义没有和平过渡。 The wealthy elites could only be removed from power by force, not to mention they had to be punished for their crime of exploiting the people. Even after the Bolsheviks had achieved control of the government violence and specifically terror were used to control the population and eliminate any perceived threat to its power.
几十万，数百万潜在的人，被处决和“红色恐怖”，对那些标记为阶级敌人的暴力活动中被囚禁。 Additionally, during the early years of the Bolshevik government, numerous uprisings were brutally put down.
所有这一切都被组织和列宁的认可。 It was under his leadership that the secret police, initially called the Cheka, and the Gulag were established. Moreover, he explicitly stated that the goal was to terrify the population into submission.
克格勃是契卡和NKVD的制度继任者，1954年至1991年工作，负责国家安全。 Abroad, its primary goals were to foster political unrest and promote Marxist ideology.
一位克格勃最知名的活动，是种植在西方媒体的不实报道和传播的意图摧毁机构的信任和煽动冲突的阴谋论。 Today this is widely known as ‘fake news’ but its origin can be traced back to the Communist intelligence agency who referred to it as ‘disinformation’.
一个成功的造谣运动最著名的案例是1984年时，美国媒体报道由美国政府正在创建的艾滋病病毒的所谓丑闻。 This was in fact a lie that had been carefully crafted and strategically inserted into foreign news sources by Soviet intelligence until it reached Western journalists.
历史学家斯蒂芬·科特金介绍了大恐怖的“这似乎违背合理的解释一个小插曲。” Between 1936 to 1938 Stalin carried out a sweeping political purge of his administrative, military and diplomatic ranks. Hundreds of thousands of people were arrested, tortured, imprisoned and in many cases summarily executed based on imaginary political offences.
同样，也没有合理的理由，以造成该国这个混乱。 Historians have been baffled for decades over Stalin’s actions in this period as his position as leader was arguably stronger than it had ever been and there were no obvious internal threats to the Soviet Union. While several theories have been put forward, Kotkin suggests that the most creditable explanation is that Stalin wanted to psychologically destroy his inner circle so they would never try to undermine him. Alongside this twisted motivation was Stalin’s paranoia towards the influence of his exiled rival, Leon Trotsky, especially after Trotsky published books severely criticizing Stalin.
不仅是恐怖完全没有必要的，它也能破坏制度。 With many of the Red Army’s most experienced and competent officers purged during the Terror, Soviet forces were severely weakened in their ability to fight back when the Nazis invaded in 1941. This resulted in extraordinarily high casualties for the Soviets.
对犹太人的偏见也被紧密联系在一起的苏联反犹太复国主义运动。 It even had an official organisation called the Anti-Zionist Committee of The Soviet Public which explicitly stated that Zionists had been collaborators with the Nazis, enabled the genocides in Eastern Europe and had deliberately exaggerated Jewish victimhood during the war.
虽然公开的政府声称，使犹太复国主义和犹太人之间的区别，在现实中存在制度性歧视。 Jews were prevented from holding certain jobs and were often scapegoated in political witch-hunts. Additionally, as part of the Soviet’s anti-religion campaign, the Jewish faith was subject to, alongside other religious faiths, State oppression in various forms.
在1967年继六日战争，谁申请移民到以色列的任何犹太人，苏联公民被拒绝的权限，并审议了人民的敌人。 These individuals, the ‘Refuseniks’, faced severe social and legal consequences, with many being imprisoned for years.
关于作者：山姆是一个自由作家住在伦敦。 His interests include history, science and MMA. You’ll likely find him at the gym or at a cafe reading a book.