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十大可怕的惩罚奴隶在美国

奴隶制,美国最伟大的悲剧之一,造成难以估量的痛苦和生命损失。 The Stanford prison experiment is frequently cited when people discuss the brutality demonstrated by humans with power. But we don’t need to look any further than our own history for these examples.

10个有趣的事实,你从来不知道奴隶制

奴隶可以受到惩罚的任何数量的“罪行”,包括偷窃,懒惰,离家出走,甚至说他们的母语。 By some accounts, enslaved people were even disciplined for sport. Here are 10 of the most horrible punishments recorded for slaves in America.

警告:此内容包含各种身体虐待和折磨的图形说明,并可以作为触发敏感的,个人的行为。 Great care has been taken to respect the lives and histories of the people represented as slaves. Please read at your own discretion.

特色图片来源: 美国国会图书馆


10搅打

照片来源: 马修·布雷迪

在美国,奴隶,其中包括孕妇和儿童,常常被鞭打作为惩罚。 The famous image of the slave “Gordon” (aka “Whipped Peter”) reveals that the skin on his back was raised with a lattice of scars from brutal and repeated whippings.[1]

然而,一些车主并没有就此停止。 When their slaves’ wounds began to heal, these owners ordered that the wounds be split open and that products such as red pepper and turpentine be applied to the gashes. According to some accounts, one owner ground a brick into rubble and dust, mixed it with lard, and had it rubbed into the wounds of a slave.

9断肢

照片来源: atlantablackstar.com

奴隶们经常预期工作异常艰难的物理条件,特别是在田间地头或棉花种植园。 Other slaves worked in their masters’ homes and were expected to be “well-groomed” and “clean.” These slaves often had lighter skin or “better speaking skills.”

无论哪种方式,它将使意义奴隶的身体进行保护和维护。 However, this rarely happened.

特别是在奴隶摸爬滚打对方或拒绝它们的主人或监工的情况下,它是业主为了身体的残害常见。 Sometimes, it involved cutting off an ear or slicing at the flesh. More severe examples included amputating limbs, gouging out eyes, cutting hamstrings, or even castrating both males and females.[2]

在许多情况下,受害者没有接受治疗。 Some died from infection, blood loss, and other complications.


8烙印

照片来源: Selbymay

品牌是指用加热的金属仪器灼热的肉。 This type of拷打在典型的做法表示所有权。

大公司通常品牌的奴隶,使他们易于识别和防止奴隶的盗窃和转售。 Eventually, these brands were used as bodily evidence to refute claims from larger companies that the practice had never occurred.

在路易斯安那州,一个“代码比诺”允许奴隶的品牌作为惩罚逃跑。 By 1840, New Orleans had developed the largest slave market in America, which placed innumerable people under this decree.[3]

特别是在南方,品牌是为逃跑共同的处罚。 Often, a letter or other identifiable mark was seared onto the slave’s face. This usually prevented that person from being assigned to any house or serving work.

7熏活着

照片来源: 洛伦佐G.大通

最终,各蓄奴州通过法律关于维修,福利和奴隶的权利。 Theoretically, this should have given slaves some protection from cruelty and abuse. In reality, these laws were rarely enforced. Some accounts describe how different methods of punishment and abuse became more popular in different states.

逃跑的奴隶威廉·w·布朗讨论了维吉尼亚州的一种普遍做法。他描述了一个奴隶主把他的奴隶捆绑起来,在熏制室里鞭打。然后他又用烟草茎造出火来闷死和“熏”奴隶,作为进一步的惩罚。[4]


6大桶的

照片来源: docsouth.unc.edu

曾经的奴隶可能会提供关于虐待和折磨奴隶的最令人痛心的描述。摩西·罗珀的母亲是非洲人和印第安人,她是摩西的奴隶英语的父亲。摩西逃脱奴役后,写了一本关于他生活的书。他清楚地描述了美国奴隶所遭受的各种折磨和侮辱。

摩西讲述了一些业主对体罚的乐趣。他描述了一个奴隶主,他把钉子钉进一个大桶里,然后把钉子钉在桶里。他的奴隶被塞进桶里,滚下又长又陡的山坡,而主人和其他奴隶则在一旁观看。[5]

10个奴隶谁成为罗马天主教圣徒

悬挂在做饭的火下

照片来源: laphamsquarterly.org

哈丽特雅各布也逃离了奴隶制度,写下了她的事迹。她描述了自己被一名奴隶主“占有”的经历,这名奴隶主不顾妻子的反对,定期对她进行性骚扰。为了躲避他,哈丽特在她祖母天花板上的狭小空间里躲了七年,最后逃到了英国。

在另一篇悲惨的叙述中,哈丽特提到一个住在她附近的奴隶主。他有数百名奴隶。他最喜欢的惩罚是把一个奴隶绑起来,把他吊在地上,然后在他上面点火。一块肥美的猪肉被火烤熟了。然后燃烧的脂肪滴到奴隶裸露的皮肤上。[6]


4降级或出售

照片来源: 吉尔伯特·斯图尔特

虽然这种类型的惩罚似乎没有这里详细描述的先前的恐怖事件那么重要,但它可能意味着一个奴隶的生与死的区别。乔治华盛顿他公开支持鞭打和其他对奴隶的体罚。但他也支持对那些工作不够努力的奴隶进行降职,以及出售重复逃跑的奴隶。

许多在体力要求不高的条件下工作的奴隶,比如在房子里或在熟练的行业里,可能会被降职到地里干活。这导致了更严酷的物理条件,更苛刻的物理工作,往往更暴力的待遇从业主和监督员。在最糟糕的情况下,奴隶会以便宜的价格卖给奴隶主,而奴隶主对奴隶的待遇很差,甚至会把他们累死。[7]

3公开销毁活动

照片来源: atlantablackstar.com

惩罚经常被公开。其他的奴隶被迫观看警告他们应该以同样的方式“表现”或受到纪律约束。有时,其他业主或附近城镇的人来观看,作为一种娱乐形式。奴隶制被废除后,公开的私刑和绞刑一直持续到20世纪。

一种可怕的惩罚方法是当众焚烧。奴隶们不是被绑在木桩上就是被绑在火上。一些奴隶在大火开始吞噬他们的身体之前就因吸入浓烟而昏厥过去。但许多人在最终死去之前被火焰折磨着。[8]

2长期的链接

照片来源: 维基媒体

在奴隶制的历史上,锁链的使用是有据可查的。从奴隶开始船舶在那里,被俘的非洲人被捆绑在一起,装在船壳里。长期的锁链经常被用来重复逃跑的奴隶。他们被拴在工作站或其他奴隶上。

在某些情况下,长长的奴隶队伍被束缚在一起,齐心协力地做着卑微的工作。这就是后来在美国监狱里臭名昭著的锁链团伙的起源。

一个因虐待奴隶而臭名昭著的女人——即使按照19世纪的标准——就是Delphine LaLaurie夫人。人们进行了各种调查,以确定她的奴隶的状况,直到1834年她家发生火灾。

一名年老的女奴隶,她是一名厨师,据说是她企图自杀。她被铐在炉子上烧饭用的火上。后来,在拉劳瑞的阁楼里发现了几个条件恶劣的奴隶。他们被挂在脖子上,站在那里,四肢被锁链锁着,伸展着,撕裂着。[9]

1迫使繁殖

奴隶们常常忍受着性骚扰以及包括强奸在内的袭击。没有法律来阻止这一点。

由于这种虐待而怀孕的妇女很少得到任何医疗照顾或特殊治疗。相反,她们经常被主人的妻子粗暴对待。实际上,男奴是被他们的主人拉皮条的,他们还受到虐待,被迫与各种各样的女人睡觉。

继奴隶,其在1808年生效的美国法律禁止进口,奴隶短缺发生在南方。 The internal slave market boomed, which increased the demand for black people. As a result, slaves were often bought and sold based on their “childbearing” capabilities. They were forced to have sex with other slaves to produce more children.[10]

通常情况下,奴隶可以与他们也有小孩选择。 But matchmaking records exist that were based on physical characteristics.

十大误解关于美国奴隶制

关于作者:布列塔尼是来自新西兰的自由撰稿人。 She spends most of her time traveling, reading, and connecting with different cultures. With a professional background in mental health and addictions, she is always on the lookout for new research and breakthroughs.